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World War I

Central Powers:

Austria-Hungary (1)

-M.95 Mannlicher, Steyr, 1917. Originally in 8x50R Mannlicher. This one was converted postwar to 8x56R. Has a canvas sling & the Austrian rod rifle grenade w/friction pull primer. Below it is an OEWG marked M.95 bayonet & scabbard & an FGGY bayonet/scabbard. Just below the rifle grenade is the special 8x50R blank used for firing that grenade. Below the blank is a clip of WWI dated 8x50R ball.
-M.88/90 Mannlicher, Steyr, 1890, cal. 8x50R. Rear sight sideplates are FGGY marked.
-M.90 Mannlicher, receiver marked Steyr, barrel proofed budapest, 1894. M.88 bayonet above, scabbard & frog beleow.
-M1891 Mosin-Nagant, Tula, 1915, cal. 7.62x54R. That description should tell you this is a cheat. While the action is not from an Austrian conversion, the stock is. It is dated 1890-something (can't make out the last number) & has the Austrian wire swivels. Also has a hole in the bottom of the butt for the screw-in type Austrian swivel, and is marked W on the top of the butt & A on the right side. That's probably as close as I'll ever come to an Austrian M-N conversion.


-M1898 revolver, Rast & Gasser, Vienna, 1916, cal. 8mm Gasser. 8 shot, the most wonderfully gawky & mechanical pistol I've handled.
-M1912 Steyr-Hahn, Steyr, 1914, cal. 9x21.

Helmets from left to right:

-The Austo-Hungarian version of the German M16 helmet, painted in the Austrian brown color with cloth chinstrap.
-German-type Austro-Hungarian helmet with Berndorfer style liner. Sometimes incorrectly called the Hungarian M17 or M18 by collectors. Note the lack of large rivets for the liner in front of the vent lugs as on the helmet to the left.
-Berndorfer helmet. About 130,000 of these were made before the Austrians changed to making the German style of helmet. This is the more common type of Berndorfer. A second style, closer in shape to the German helmet, but with the crown vent of this helmet also exists, but is quite rare.

Hand grenades, left to right:

-Zeitzunder or 'Guguruz' hand grenade with friction pull fuse. The cast iron fragmentation section interchanges with the rifle grenade up top.
-Austro-hungarian stick grenade.
-Lakos grenade.
-Austrian universal grenade, with metal cap next to it. Could be used as a hand or rifle grenade, has alternate fusing sytems, & a lot of parts for a very little explosive payload.
-M16 Cigaro grenade, with one half of the butterfly shell open.
-two different types of Schwergranate frag grenades.

Austria-Hungary (2)

-M.95 Mannlicher carbine, Steyr, 1917, cal. 8x50R. Except for the blued bolt, this one seems pretty original. Has the stutzen type front band with bayonet lug & stacking hook, & screw head on the left side of the rifle. Below is a M.95 carbine bayonet w. scabbard/frog.
-M.95 carbine, Budapest, 1912, cal. 8x50R. This is the M.95 cavalry carbine with the front band fitted with a bayonet lug.
-M.90 cavalry carbine, Steyr, cal. 8x50R. Has no barrel date, and circle T firing proofs. This may have been a Bulgarian contract carbine or one of those made for commercial sale to other militaries. With a very old leather sling.
-M.90 Extra-Korps Gewehr, cal. 8x50R, Steyr, barrel date 1902. Missing rear sling swivel.

-Kugel rohr granate, with original cardboard handle.
-Rohr granate with cylindrical head. Has reproduction cardboard handle & label.

-10cm base-fused HE shell with separate loading shell case.
-8cm shrapnel shell.

Germany (1)

-Gewehr 98, DWM 1915, cal.7,9x57. Repro sling, 98/05 bayonet, scabbard & frog below.
-Kar. 98a, Erfurt, 1916. Below is unit marked 84/98 bayo. w. iron mounted leather scabbard.
-To the right of the Kar. 98a, stripper clip of 1918 dated 7,9x57 spitzer ammo above a clip for the Gew. 88 with 1902 dated round nose 7,9x57.
-Gew. 88, Spandau 1889, cal. 7,9x57. S marked, no overt signs of Turkish use.
-Gew.88/05, Steyr, 1890, cal. 7,9x57. Czech made Turkish bolt, repro sling, M71/84 bayonet by OEWG With scabbard above
-Gew. 91, Erfurt 1893, cal. 7,9x57. Has a cartridge case stuck in the chamber that I haven't gotten around to yet, hence the open bolt.

-Mauser C96 pistol, Mauser Oberndorf, cal. 7.63x25. Wartime military accepted commercial style pistol.

-Pistol-08 (Luger), DWM, 1914, cal. 9x19.

-Below the pistols, Model 1914 n/A ball hand grenade & Model 1917 'egg' grenade.
-To the right of the Luger, Stiehlhandgrantaen (stick grenades), model 1915, 1916 & 1917.

Germany (2)

-Infanterie Gewehr 71, Gebruder Mauser, Oberndorf a/Neckar, 1877, cal. 11x60R Mauser. Part of the Mauser order made for Wurtemburg. 1884 dated 11x60R round below.
-Mosin-Nagant M1891, Chatellerault, France, 1895, cal. 7.62x54R. The sharp eyed will note that this rifle has a Finnish stock & sling. It is also fitted with the German bayonet adapter for this rifle as used in WWI. 1918 dated m84/98 bayonet & scabbard below. Also my only German manufactured round of 7.62x54R ammunition below, made by Polte in Magdeburg in 1917.

-To the left is a 2cm Becker round. The Becker was developed for use on zeppelins. While it saw limited use in the air, it was used as a ground based anti-aircraft cannon. Dated 1918.
-M16 Stahlhelm with fitted hessian cover.
-M16 Stahlhelm shell, camo painted, with large, compression type fracture on the top.
-M18 Stahlhelm.

-7,7cm shrapnel shell with its separate loading shell case.
-10,5 cm shrapnel round

Bulgaria/Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

-M.95 Mannlicher, Steyr, 1903, cal. 8x50R. Bulgarian contract with Lion crest & vent hole in bolt. NCO bayonet below it is not Bulgarian marked, but I bought it from someone in Bulgaria, so it goes here for now.
-M.88/90 Mannlicher, Steyr, 1888-90, cal. 8x50R. Bulgarian contract, with Bulgarian modified rear sight side plates.

-M1903 Mauser, Mauser Oberndorf, 1909, cal. 7.65x53. John Wall told me a few years ago that this was from the Turkish Macedonian Gendermerie contract. 1913 dated Turkish 7.65x53 spitzer round & M1903 bayonet below.
-M1893 Mauser, Mauser Oberndorf, 1894-95, cal. 7.65x53. Original condition Turkish M93 with original looking sling. M1890 bayonet & scabbard below, 1893 dated Turkish round nose 7.65x53 round above.
-M1887 Mauser, Mauser Oberndorf, 1889-90, cal. 9.5x60R. Last Mauser military black powder design. My only round of 9.5mm Turkish ammo, dated 1892, is above it.

-Turkish model 2 grenade, with lead transit plug still in place, together with reproduction brass fuse supplied by board member Gustaf B. Thanks!
-Turkish 75mm shrapnel round.
-FN Browning Model 1903, cal. 9mm Browning Long. Ottoman contract marked.
-Turkish cut down visor stahlhelm. Made from a cut-down German M16. these were the first type issued. There was also a version based on the m18, made with a rolled rim.



-76.2mm shrapnel round for Russian field gun. Case dated 1907.

-M1910 Mauser, Mauser Oberndorf, Germany 1910-1912, cal. 7x57. Commercially marked model 1910 with Serbian proofs. In very rough shape, but I have searched long & hard for any Serbian WWI configuration rifle.
-M-1891 Mosin-Nagant, 1917 Tula Peter the Great marked, mismatched but markings intact, no importer marks or importer serial #. No evident Balkan or Finn markings.
-Remington bayonet for same.
-M1907 Mosin-Nagant cavalry carbine, Izhevsk 1912. Stock well sanded but all matching.
-M1895 Winchester, Russian contract. Not Spanish marked, came to me with two rounds of Finnish 7.62x54R in the butt trap, not that that signifies, but it was a nice surprise.
-M1891 M-N, Tula 1899, Balkan import, Romanov birds more or less intact. Has the eagle over HI mark on the left side of chamber & receiver. Was sold to me as a Montenegrin rifle. Marks had fresh looking white goo in them when the rifle arrived. Goo obscured the markings, so was removed, revealing equally fresh looking marks stamped in the metal. Doesn't really resemble the pictures of JPS's I've seen, either. Long description, but that's to say that I have my doubts, but it's my Montenegrin until something better comes along.
-Another Remgton marked M1891 bayonet.

-M1895 Nagant revolver, 1913. Arsenal marks removed, but still has the old front sight.
-M1911 Colt, caL. .45acp, commercial pistol with English Contract mark in Cyrillic on left side of frame, refinished.

-Serbian Adrian helmet, fairly rare, made in France.
-Russian made 'Izhora' helmet. Would have been painted green originally. This example was captured by the Austro-Hungarians, who repainted it & replaced the liner & chinstrap, then reissued it to their own reserve troops. Russian, as opposed to Finnish made shels of this type are quite scarce.
-Russian Adrian helmet, like the Serbian helmet , made in France.


-Md. 1892 Romanian Mannlicher. Steyr 1893, cal. 6.5x53R. Cleaning rod is mismatched but otherwise very nice. Bolt is Belgian marked in addition to Steyr marked. Bayonet scabbard & frog below.
-Md. 1893 Romanian Mannlicher. Steyr 1897, cal. 6.5x53R. Serial # 33! In remarkable shape. I don't believe it was ever accepted by the Romanians; there is no crown above the model designation on the receiver. Bayonet & scabbard below.
-Md. 1893 Romanian Mannlicher cavalry carbine. Steyr 1894, cal. 6.5x53R. Rear sight graduated to 1800 meters.
-Md 1893 Romanian Mannlicher cavalry carbine. Steyr, 1914, cal. 6.5x53R. Rear sight graduated to 2000 meters.
-The only round of Romanian contract 6.5x53R ammunition I have. Dated 1912, made by Hirtenberger.

-Md 1912 Romanian contract Steyr Hahn pistol, cal. 9x21 Steyr, 1913.
-Shell of Romanian 'Adrian' helmet with crest of King Ferdinand I.

France (1)

-Mle 1886 M.93 'Lebel', cal. 8x50R, Manufacture d'armes de Châtellerault (MAC) 1889. World's first smokeless powder military rifle. Above it is the early version of the Mle1886 bayonet 'Rosalie', with German silver hilt and quillion, below is the later version, with brass hilt & no quillion.
-Mle 1907/15 'Berthier', cal. 8x50R, MAC, 1915. Early version of the 07/15 with bent bolt handle.
Below is a three shot clip of WWI dated 8x50R.
-Mle 1907/15 'Berthier', cal. 8x50R, Delaunay Bellville, 1917. Delaunay Belleville was a well known automobile manufacturer in France at the time.
-Mle 1890, MAC 1890, cal. 8x50R. This was the first weapon of the 'Berthier' type. The 1890 cavalry carbine came in two styles (maybe more, ask those who know on the French forum to be sure), the other version had a different type of stock for the Cuirassiers. As a cavalry carbine it takes no bayonet. To the right of the mle 1890 is a 37x94R HE round, dated 1918. These were used by the French in infantry guns, tanks and some aircraft uses. This round was used by most of the warring nations on both sides in some form.
-Mle 1892, Manufacture d'armes de Saint-Étienne (MAS) 1892, cal. 8x50R. This modification of the Mle1890 to take a bayonet was for artilleryman, fortress troops, and anyone else who needed a rifle but not an infantry rifle. This one escaped the modifications made after the war to most of these, and still has provision for its cleaning rod. This cleaning rod is a repro. Above is the earlier version of the Mle1892 bayonet, with a rubberized composite handle, together with its scabbard & frog, below is the later version of the bayonet with the wooden handle.
-Mle M.16, MAC 1918. The Berthiers were modified to take five shot clips, resulting in the extended magazine you see here. That was the modification M. 16. This rifle was assembled at Chatellerault, but the receiver was made at the Etts. Continsouza, who were manufacturers of motion picture cameras and equipment. Below is a five round clip of WWI dated 8x50R.

Below the M.16 from left to right:
-Holster for the Savage M1907.
-Mle 1873 revolver, Cal. 11mm, MAS 1883. Double-action revolver, which came out in the same year as the Colt SAA. Nice handling revolver. Below it is a 1905 dated 11x17R round.
-Savage Model 1907, Savage Arms Company, Utica, NY., 1916, cal. 7.65mm Browning/.32 ACP. This is a French military contract pistol, with lanyard loop on the heel of the butt.

-Mle 1892 revolver, cal. 8mm, MAS 1896. Has a loading gate, but also a cylinder which swings out to the right, for cavalry use. This one is naval marked. With holster.
-Mle 15 Adrian helmet. This helmet bears the standard flaming bomb with RF of the French infantry. It is painted in the slate blue-gray color that was adopted after the initial horizon blue color turned out to be too conspicuous.

France (2)

-Mle 1874 M. 80 M.14 'Gras', MAS, cal. 8x50R. The black powder 11mm Gras rifle was modified early in the war to accept the 8mm Lebel round as a war emergency measure. The barrel was reamed out and sleeved to 8mm, and a handguard was added. The t-backed bayonet & scabbard are for the Gras, but the bayonet is marked Steyr, 1881. I'm not sure if that is appropriate to go with a French rifle or not, maybe someone will enlighten me. Also beneath the rifle is a 1915 dated 8x50R round, below that is an 11x59R Gras Vickers round. This was the original blackpowder round for the Gras rifle modified with a jacketed incendiary round to be used in Vickers machine guns in aicraft for use against balloons & zeppelins.
-Fusil Automatique Mle 1917, cal. 8x50R, Manufacture nationale d’armes de Tulle (MAT) 1917. The first semi-automatic issue infantry rifle used in combat. the Germans used both Mondragon & Mauser semi-autos in aircraft, and the French used Winchester M1907 & M1910 rifles in aircraft & the trenches, but this rifle was the first semi-auto built & issued by a military for its ground forces. utilizes a five round clip different from that of the Berthier M.16. This rifle, as with most Mle 1917s, was modified in the 1920s or 30s by having its gas system plugged, thus making it essentially into a bolt action.

Beneath the Mle 1917 left to right:
-F1 grenade with Billant automatic fuse.
-Vivien-Bessier rifle grenade, without launcher, but with brass guard to protect the igniter next to it. There are threads with better examples & excellent descriptions of how these work in the French board.
-OF1 offensive grenade with Billant fuse.
-'Ruby' pistol, Esperanza y Unceta, Guernica, Spain, 1916-17, cal. 7.65mm Browning/.32 ACP. The Ruby pistol was ordered by the French from the Gabilondo company in Spain. In order to keep up with the large French orders, Gabilondo contracted with several other Spanish gunmakers to manufacture versions of the same pistol. Some, like this one, were well made, others less so. This is Esperanza's 1916 Model. With holster.

-On top-'Petard de la Troisime armee'. Improvised French grenade from early in the war. A piece of wood with a belt hook on the back. The block at the top has a nail stuck in it to act as a friction fuse. Pull the wire attached to the nail, nail rotates & grinds against the black powder starting a train, which burns down into the iron cylinder and explodes the main charge. Extra bits of iron are wired to the sides for more shrapnel.
-Mle 1914 'bracelet' grenade. Cast iron sphere with a wooden plug fuze. The pin in the fuze would have been connected by a chain to a metal hoop worn around the wrist. When the grenade was thrown, the pin would be pulled by this chain to start the fuze. This gave some distance between the thrower & the grenade, as the fuzes had a tendency to go off prematurely.
-Citron Foug grenade.
-F1 frag grenade with percussion fuse, ca. 1915.
-Incendiary grenade with the same type of percussion fuse. Thin metal shell was filled with petrol and had magnesium in the fuse.
-P1 grenade, missing the cloth tail attached to the handle. The tail was used to insure the percussion fuse on the bottom of the grenade landed at the correct angle.

-Below the grenades on the left is a 75mm shrapnel round, on the right a 75mm HE round.

More Mle 15 helmets:
-Painted in the mustard-khaki of the French Colonial troops. The crescent badge with RF, for Republique Francais, was used by Zouave &
Spahi regiments, amongst others.

-The badge of the Chasseurs. most of the darker blue-gray has worn off this helmet, revealing the early light Horizon Blue.
-Helmet of the Artillery painted in the early, lighter horizon blue color.
-Helmet of the Colonial Infantry painted in a glossy version of the early, lighter shade.
-The badge of the Medical Corps.
-The badge of the Engineers.

-The helmet of the Czech Legion, serving in France. I have no Czech section for WWI, so this may rest here.


-M1900 Luxembourg Mauser, Mauser Oberndorf, 1900, cal. 6.5x55. Very few of these about, a modification of the Swedish Mauser with a shorter barrel & different front band.
M1889 Mauser, Fabrique Nationale. This particular 1889 was captured by the Germans & rechambered to 7,9x57. The chamber has the Prussian eagle firing proof. The stock does not have the Deutches Reich marking but does still have the Belgian Guarde Civique mark.
-Short bayonet, frog & scabbard for the M1889 rifle.
-One round of 7.65x53 ammunition manufactured by National Cartridge Company, USA, for Belgium in 1917. This round fell out of a paper packet that is still tied shut but deteriorating. To get a whole clip out I'd have to destroy the original pakage.
-M1916 Mauser carbine. Manufacture D'Armes de L'Etat. Cal. 7.65x53. The Belgians standardized on this carbine during the war. No date, so it stays in the WWI section.

-Browning Model 1900 pistol, Fabrique Nationale, Herstal, Belgium, 7.65mm browning (.32 ACP). This is a departure from usual practice, in that this is not a Belgian military issue pistol. It is a commercial model 1900, ca. 1904/05. Since it is below serial # 200,000, it could be in the French section, as they bought several thousand in that range, with no identifying marks. I place it here as there is more room, and Belgium was the first military to adopt this pistol & also its biggest user. Several countries on both sides used these pistols in WWI, either through military contracts, private purchases, or both.

-M15 Adrian helmet, with the lion of Belgium.
-Queen Elisabeth helmet, 1917. Queen Elisabeth of Belgium did a great deal of work for the Belgian troops during the war. She was concerned about eye & face wounds being suffered in the trenches, and funded development of this visored helmet on her own. About 1000 were made & issued in 1917-18.

Great Britain & Commonwealth (1)

-Short, Magazine Lee-Enfield, Mark III (called Rifle, No1 Mk.III after WWI), Ishapore, India, 1911, cal. .303. Has early pattern leather sling, fitted with Townsend rifle grenade. All the rifle grenades displayed on rifles in this section are rod type grenades, with a metal rod going down the barrel.
-Short, Magazine Lee-Enfield, Mark III*, BSA, Birmingham, England, 1918, cal. .303, fitted with a No44 anti-tank rifle grenade, 1918. The Mark III* was a general simplification of the Mark III introduced in 1915 to speed up production. Things like the volley sights & magazine cut-off were eliminated. Pattern 1907 bayonet, by Wilkinson, 1918 above, scabbard & Pattern 1914 frog, made of boiled leather, 1915, below.
-Short, Magazine Lee-Enfield, Mark I***, RSAF Enfield, Enfield Lock, England, 1911, cal. .303. Mark I series SMLE updated to *** standard between 1914-1919. Fitted with a No3 Mk2 rifle grenade.
-Pattern 14 Mark I, Eddystone, Philadelphia, PA., USA, 1916, cal. .303. This P-14 is in original condition, with volley sights, and without the Mark I * markings. Fitted with a No23 Mills grenade (Mills bomb) which has a rod attached to serve as a rifle grenade.

-Webley Mk.VI, Philip Webley & Sons, Birmingham, 1915, cal. .455.
-Colt Model 1911, Colt, Hartford, CT., USA, R.A.F. contract, after May 1918, cal. .455.
-Beneath the pistols is a
Mk.II charger with Dominion Canada 1916 dated Mk.VII ball. The charger is also Canadian marked

Hand grenades left to right:
-Mark I 'Malta' grenade. These were made on the island of Malta for use in the Gallipoli Campaign. Rare grenade.
-Battye grenade. Early frag grenade with crudely cast sleeve, and wooden plug in the end.

-No5 Mk1 Mills grenade, base plug dated 9/16.
-No34 Mk3 grenade, 1917.
-No27 Mk1 smoke rifle grenade, missing rod.

-No.27 Mk.I smoke hand grenade, repainted, 1917.
-No37 smoke hand grenade, 1917.

Helmets, left to right:
-Private purchase mild steel officer's helmet, probably 1915. Based on contemporary miner's helmets, these were not very effective as shrapnel helmets, being made from thin metal. This example has several slits in it that look very much like someone has used it for bayonet practice.
-War Office 1915 pattern helmet. After some protoype helmets issued earlier, this was the first mass production version of the 'Brodie' type helmet. These came originally in a smooth, light apple green finish, which can still be seenn inside this repainted example. Made of manganese steel, these offered good protection against fragments. The liner and other details were changed from this to the next helmet. Has the badge of the Worchestershire Regiment.
-Mk. I 'Brodie' helmet, 1916-18. Sand is mixed in the paint to reduce glare. Improved liner and chinstrap loops from the previous helmet, as well as an attached edge around the rim of the helmet. This was the main British helmet of the war.

Great Britain & Commonwealth (2)

-Ross MkIII, Ross Rifle Co., Quebec, Canada, 1914, cal. .303. This rifle is C.E.F. marked. Fitted with a Hales No2 (Mk2?) rifle grenade. Mk.III bayonet below. The Mk. II & Mk. III bayonet will not interchange.
-RossMkII***, Ross Rifle Co. Quebec, Canada, 1910. Rifle is U.S. and ordnance bomb marked, and came with a Kerr No-Buckl sling attached.
Fitted with the No. 35 Mk.I high explosive rifle grenade, marked G.H. & Co. 1918. Mk. II bayonet scabbard & frog (also U.S. marked) below. These rifles were used for training in Canada, and in the UK by Canadian troops, but likely did not see combat. Many, like this one, were later sold to the USA to be used for training when they entered the war.
-.303 cloth bandolier dated 8-18.

-13 pounder shrapnel round.
-18 pounder shrapnel round, repainted.


-Fucile Modello 91 Carcano, Torre Annunziata, 1898, cal. 6.5x52. With M1891 bayonet, scabbard/frog.
-Moschetto Modello 91 per Truppi Speciali (M91TS), Brescia 1917. Made with lug for special TS bayonet (pictured).
-M1870/87/15 Vetterli, Brescia 1888, cal. 6.5x52. This is another example of the country's older blackpowder weapons being rechambered for the newer smokeless round as an emergency measure early in WWI.

-Glisenti M1910, Brescia, cal. 9mm Glisenti. Beautifully made pistol, but with frame design that does not allow for a powerful cartridge. Round is dimensionally identical to a 9mm Parabellum, but only about 75% as powerful. With holster.
-Model 1889 Bodeo, Type II, G.A. Castelli, Brescia 1917, cal. 10.35mm. Enlisted mens' version with folding trigger.
-Beretta Model 1915, Pietro Beretta, Brescia, cal. 9mm Glisenti. Beretta's first military pistol design. Originally made in .32acp, this version is chambered in the 9mm Glisenti round. These were issued to both the army & the police. This example is police marked.

-To the right of the Bodeo revolver is a Lenticolare discus grenade. A rope-like fuse would have come out of the brass plug in the center & been held by the clamp on the left.
To the left of the Glisenti pistol are the other grenades:
-On the far left with the wire handle is a Carbone grenade, an Italian copy of the Austrian Guguruz fragmentation grenade.
-Next to the right is a Thevenot Excelsior, which wa a French design, used by th French & the Italians. This one is painted Italian girgio-verde. It is missing its cloth tail that would be pinned around the wooden handle.
-In the next row, from the top down:
-Besozzi grenade, minus its fuse.
-S.I.P.E. grenade (Società Italiana Prodotti Esplodenti)
-BPD grenade (Bombrini Parodi Delfino)
-Benaglia type B rifle grenade, missing its fins at the base of the grenade.

-The large yellow shell is a 105mm shell with a time & percussion fuze. Was sold to me as a howitzer shell, but I believe it may be for th cannone 105/28. Shell has been repainted.
-Italian 75mm round for their Krupp desinged guns; shell case dated 1918.

-Top left helmet is an Italian Mo.15-16 Lippmann helmet, a simplifed version of the Adrian, made in two parts instead of four. This helmet is marked to the 55th infantry brigade. Further stenciling to the brigade inside the rim is dated 1916.
- Mo.15-16 Lippmann helmet fitted with a cloth cover from the 9th Infantry Regiment, with a symbol for the machine gun company on the side.
-Farina helmet, short model, rusty, but still with somme grigio verde paint. These helmets had very heavy brow plates, for use by assault troops.

-Farina helmet, tall model, with non-standard 'tall' shape and black paint.


-Type 38, Koishikawa Arsenal, Tokyo, cal. 6.5x50SR. Early production Type 38, although I haven't seen anything which could tell me if this serial # dates to WWI period or not. Missing dust cover. Original sling.
-Type 30 Bayonet & scabbard, Koishikawa Arsenal, Tokyo. Early style bayonet which has been used as a hatchet & hammer at some point.
-Type 30 Rifle, Koishikawa Arsenal, Tokyo. Royal Chysanthemum has been overstruck with arsenal mark, meaning this rifle was sold out of Japanes service. This could be one of the many rifles of this type supplied to Russia in WWI, or even to Great Britain. There are no marks to indicate one way or the other, though.
-Type 44 carbine, Koishikawa Arsenal, Tokyo. These folding bayonet carbines began to be produced in 1911. Again this is an early model, but I know of no way to date it to the WWI period.

-Papa Nambu, Tokyo Gas & Electric, cal. 8mm Nambu, date uncertain. This is not a Naval contract pistol. These were available as private purchase pistols for Japanese offcers in the WWI period.


-Espingarda Modelo 1904 'Vergueiro', DWM, Berlin, 1904-1908, cal. 6.5x58. Portuguese troops on the Western Front used British weapons, but this was the standard Portuguese rifle, and was used by them in Africa, as well as by South African troops, to whom the Portuguese supplied a large number. This is the only Vergueiro I have encountered with the original finish on the stock, most of those from Africa & elsewhere have been well sanded. Bayonet & scabbard below.
-Espingarda Modelo 1904, DWM, Berlin, 1904-08. This one is different in that it is D.M.G.L.M. marked, in English, General Military Directorate of Laurenco Marques. So this rifle was assigned to Portuguese East Africa, where they were used by Portuguese, and, when captured, by German troops. Bayonet & scabbard below.
-Espingarda Modelo 1896, Steyr 1899, cal. 6.5x53R. These short rifles were ordered for the Portuguese Navy & were based on the Romanian Mannlicher rifles. They even have the Romanian final inspection proofs on them, as does the bayonet, which I acquired from Portugal, below.
-Espingarda Modelo 1886 'Kropatschek', Steyr 1886, cal. 8x56R Krop. These would still have been in use with colonial forces in WWI. Bayonet & scabbard below.
-Model 1903 Mannlicher-Schoenauer, Steyr 1907, cal. 6.5x54. Greek rifle with original sling and muzzle cover. The sling is not easy to find. Bayonet is for this rifle but is a cheat, as it was made in Italy & so is post WWI in origin. Beneath the rifle is also a 1913 Greek-made 6,5x54 round.

-75mm Greek shrapnel round.
-Model 1906 Portuguese Luger with the crest of Manoel II, DWM, Berlin, 1908-10, cal. 7,65mm Luger, with holster & cleaning tools.
-Portuguese M 16 helmet, based on the British private purchase mild steel helmets. When Portugal entered the war, in 1916, the British supplied them with arms, but were unable to provide helmets. The Portuguese acquired these, but began replacing them with British helmets they were found to be less protective.


These countries declared war on the Central Powers in 1917, and most of their activities were limited to seizing German ships & other assets within their borders.
-Hanyang type rifle, cal. 7.92x57. This is one of the many Chinese copies of the Gew. 88, without the barrel jacket. Hanyang Arsenal produced some of the best versions of this rifle, hence its name amongst collectors. This example has no markings as to the maker. I made the guy climb the ladder in the showroom of Springfield Sporters & get it for me because I liked the markings on the butt. It is extremely beat.
-Hanyang type carbine. An equally beat carbine length version of the above rifle.
-M1903 Siamese Mauser, Koishikawa Arsenal, Tokyo, cal. 8x52R. Converted form the original 8x50R. Bayonet & scabbard below.
-Yes, Brazil entered WWI in 1917, although it's unlikely that any Brazilian Mausers saw action. Brazil's navy, including her two dreadnoughts, took over South Atlantic convoy responsibilities, and Brazil seized German assets in the country. Brazilian M1908 Mauser, DWM, Berlin, cal. 7x57. with leather action cover, bayonet & scabbard.

United States

-Model of 1903, Springfield Armory, Springfield, MA., 1909, cal. .30-06. Springfield '03 with single screw stock in pre-WWI configuration, with 1917 dated Model 1907 sling. Some of the parts are parkerized from later mixing & matching. Scruffy 1906 dated Model 1905 bayonet & clip of 1918 dated Winchester made .30-06 below.
-Model of 1917, Eddytstone Arsenal, Philadelphia, PA., 1918, cal. .30-06. Late war Eddystone with what's left of original finish. Lend-lease marked for Canada. Kerr No-Buckl sling, bayonet & scabbard below.
-Model of 1898 Krag-Jorgensen, Springfield Armory, Springfield, MA., 1901, Cal. .30-40 (.30 U.S. Army). Krags were not only used in the U.S. for training & guard duty, but also made it to France in the hands of railway troops. Mills web sling. 1904 dated Frankford arsenal .30-40 round & 1896 dated bayonet/scabbard below.

Grenades left to right:
-Mk. I offensive grenade with cardboard body and Mk. I fuze.
-Mk. II frag grenade, early grenade body with early 'cutback' Mk.II fuze.
-Mk.II gas grenade, KJ, with Mk.II cutback fuze. These were filled with stannic chloride, and were intended to be used as irritants to help clear bunkers & dugouts.

Handguns, top to bottom:
-Colt Model 1917 Revolver, Colt, Hartford, CT. late 1917-early 1918, cal. .45ACP. This is an early Colt that cannot be fired without the half-moon clips.
-Colt Model 1909 Revolver, Colt, Hartford, CT. 1909-11, cal. .45 Long Colt (modified). This example is a military revolver with a cylinder & crane from a commercial gun.
-Smith & Wesson Model 1917, Smith & Wesson, Springfield, MA. 1917-18, cal. .45 ACP.

-Colt Model 1911, Colt, Hartford, CT. 2003, cal.45 ACP. This is a cheat. It's one of Colt's newly made 'continuation of WWI production' pistols, with WWI era 1911 features & markings. -M1909 holster, for any of the revolvers.
Helmets, left to right:
-U.S. Model 1917 helmet, based on the British Mk. I. This is a U.S. made example (you can tell by the rivets on the chinstrap swivels indside) which has sawdust mixed in the paint to reduce glare. These are not thought to have been painted with unit markings or camouflage during the war. Those are believed to have been added after the Armistice.
-What remains of my grandfather's Model 1917 helmet. He was in an artillery unit that was attached to several divisions during its stay in France. On the sides, at the edge of the rim, you might be able to make out two small loops of wire. There are three small holes on each side in this area to hold these loops. They are for a device called the Wilmer eye shield. Many helmets were modified for this device, although it was not generally issued.
-Experimental Number 2 helmet, 'Deep Salade'. The model 1917 helmet was seen as a temporary measure until the U.S. could design its own, distinctive helmet. A whole series of experimental helmets were designed and some were produced in a couple thousand examples for trials. Some number 2s went to France for trials. I've seen exactly one photo so far of an officer wearing one in France.

-Below the helmets is a 75mm HE round for the French 75, made by the American Can Company, 1918.

World War II
Some of these are Allies, some Axis, & some are mixed. If you don't know who is which, go read about it.


-Mle1936, MAS 1938, cal.7.5x54. MAS 36 in pre-war configuration with forged parts and black instead of grey finish. Below is a 1936 dated stripper clip with 1937 dated 7.5mm ammunition.
-Mle1907/15 M.34, MAS 1939, cal. 7.5x54. This is the Mle07/15 converted to 7.5mm, with a new, shortened barrel, Mauser-style magazine, and new rear sights. 50,000 of the Berthiers were modified to this standard, to bring them closer in most respects to the new MAS 36.
-Mle1907/15 M.16, MAS 1917, cal.8x50R. This is the 07/15 Berthier modified for the five round magazine after WWI. I've read that in 1940, over half of the French infantry was still armed with the 'fishing pole'. Bayonet/scabbard/frog below.
-Mle M.16, MAC, 1939, cal.8x50R. This is the same version of the Berthier carbine that was being made toward the end of WWI. These were still being made into the start of WWII. This example was accepted into service in November, 1939. 1938 dated packet of 8 8mm Balle N rounds below.
-Wz.29, Radom 1937, cal. 7.92x57. Polish short Mauser. This one has a 98k bolt, came with 98k sling. Below is a clip of 1936 dated Polish 7.92mm ammo, and a box of 15 rounds of Polish ammo dated 1934.
-K98, Radom 1920s?, cal. 7.92x57. Polish copy of Kar. 98a. Missing lower band screw.
-Granat Cwiczebny E type 1, This is a WWI era British Number 16 grenade body (dated 1915) fitted with a Polish AC 23 fuze.
-VIS 35 Radom, Radom early 1940s, cal. 9mm Parabellum. Early occupation production, refurbed postwar. Really nice pistols these are. Should go in the German section, but I don't have a pre-occupation pistol, so it goes here.
-Mle1935A, Societe Alsacienne de Constructions Mecaniques(S.A.C.M.), Cholet, France, 1938-40, cal. 7.65mm longue. Pre-occupation French pistol. Very easy takedown.
-Granat Obronny Wz.23, Polish F1 type grenade body with Wz.31 fuze. There was a similar Wz.33 grenade, but this grenade body appears more like the Wz.23 to me.
-Mle 26 helmet above. Same general shape as the Adrian helmet, but of simplified design & made from manganese steel. With the flaming bomb insignia of the French infantry.
-Wz.31 helmet below. One of the best helmet designs in the world when it came out, showing its ‘salamander’ paint. Made at Ludwikow.
-Between the pistols is a
7.92x107 Polish Maroszek anti-tank rifle round, dated 1937.
-25x194R Hotchkiss French anti-tank round (AP), dated January, 1938.
-47x380R French anti-tank round (APCBC), dated 1939.


-Kar. 98k Feinmechanische Werke, Erfurt (S/27) 1937, cal. 7,9x57. Bayonet scabbard & frog below, frog dated 1935.
-Gew. 98, Simson & Co., Suhl 1917. Rebuilt with Mauser Oberndorf made tangent rear sight, 1930s. Stock is from Brazilian M1908, stamped to match this rifle. Clip of 1938 dated 7,92x57 ammunition, rifle grenade and anti-tank rifle grenade for the
Schiessbecher grenade launcher below.

-Kar. 43, Berliner-Lubecker, Lubeck (duv) 1944. Durofol handguard (plasticized compressed paper product).
-Gew.98/40, Budapest (jhv) 1941. Modification of Hungarian design to German standards. 1944 dated bayonet & scabbard below.
-shells below G.98/40:
13mm MG131(13x64B)(HE-I-NT)
15mm MG151(15x95)(AP-T)
2cm MG151(20x82)(HE-I)
2cm MG-FF(20x80RB)(Inc-T)
Right hand column:
2cm MG151(20x82)(AP-I)
2cm MG-FF(20x80RB)(HE-I)
-P.08 'Luger' Mauser Oberndorf (42) 1939, cal. 9mm Parabellum. Refurb. replacement grips.
-P.38, Walther, Zell-Mehlis (AC) 1942. with holster.
-M40 helmet, Luftwaffe marked, with German owner & Canadian capturer's names on the inside.
-M42 helmet, no decals.
-Vertical shells below Luger:
3cm MK108(30x90RB)(M-Geschoss)
3cm MK108(30x90RB)(HE-T)
3cm MK103(30x184B)(M-Geschoss)
-horizontal shells below P-38:
2cm Flak 30/38(20x138B)(API-T)
5cm Pak(50x419R)(AP-T) electric primer, tank round
3,7cm Pak(37x249R)(AP-HE-T)
7,5cm Pak(75x714R)(HE)
8,8cm KwK36(88x571R)(HE)electric primer, Tiger I round


-Ssh36 helmet, 1937, earlier dark paint.
Ssh39 helmet, 1939. Note high placement of rivets.
-Ssh40 helmet, 1944.
-M91/30 M-N, Izhevsk, 1941, cal. 7.62x54R, with bayonet & postwar dated sling.
-M91/30 M-N, Tula, 1932, pretty ratty, but was dirt cheap & is a hex receiver.
-M91 M-N Dragoon, Tula, 1927, Finn property marked, but appears otherwise unmolested, the rear sight isn't even renumbered, so it stays here in the Soviet section.
-M38 M-N, Izhevsk, 1943.
-M44 M-N, Izhevsk, 1944, post war stock.
-SVT-40, Tula 1943. Plum bolt refurb, with AVT stock & I think AVT muzzle brake.
To the right of the carbines:
-1895 Nagant, Tula, cal. 7.62x38R, 1927.
-TT33, Izhevsk, cal. 7.62x25, 1945.
-37mm M1939 (37x250R) high explosive tracer anti-aircraft round, case dated 1940, primer(fired) 1943.
-45mm (45x310R) AP-HE round for tank & anti-tank guns, shell dated 1938.
-clip of 1938 dated Type D heavy ball 7.62x54R from Lugansk/Frunze (60).
-12.7mm DShK (12.7x108) API, dated 1943.
-14.5mm Vladimirov (14.5x114) API B32, dated 1943.
-20mm ShVAK (20x99R) HE, dated 1942.
-RGD-33 hand grenade with fragmentation sleeve.
-RG -42V hand grenade. These were originally used as rodded HEAT rifle grenades, hence the angled bottom.
-RG-42 hand grenade.


-M91-24 M-N Pre-SAKO?, 1924-28, cal. 7.62x54R. Stepped barrel Civil Guard rifle.
-M91 M-N Tikka, 1940, w sling. Yes, some fool has sanded & tung-oiled this stock, and that fool was me. Actually, I thought better of it part way through. This was the second rifle I ever owned, and the one that started me on this collection. It's Puolustuslaitos marked, too. Below Is Tikka made Stripper clip with 1937 VPT 7.62x54R rounds, from box dated 12-3-38.
-M91 Dragoon, Tula, 1930.
- 20mm Long Solothurn (20x138B) AP-T, for the Lahti AT gun, 1941.
-M27, Tikkakoski, 1932. Rear half of the stock is black walnut, & I think the receiver's Westinghouse, also.
-M28, SIG barrel, in M27 stock.
-M28 bayonet, Hackmann & Co., with scabbard.
-M28/30, SAKO, 1940. Someone else gets to take the blame for sanding this one, and for going over all the exposed metal pretty hard with steel wool. Shoots nice, though.
-M39, SAKO, 1941. This is what you could get from Century for under $60 in 2000.
-Fucile Modello 91/38, Carcano, Terni, 1939, cal. 7.35. SA marked, w. SA marked sling. Below is 1939 dated clip with 7.35mm rounds by S.M.I. dated 1939 from Finnish repack box.
-Varisikranaati M32 stick grenade.


-Type 38, Koishikawa Arsenal, Tokyo, cal. 6.5x50SR. This is the same Type 38 from the WWI group. A Japanese collector would think it odd that I don't have a different Type 38, with later features for the WWII picture, but I guess that's one of the differeneces between collecting wide & collecting deep. This time there's a Type 30 bayonet & scabbard along with it. They reside here because the story that came with them is they were brought back from Attu. I bought the bayonet & not the story, but I don't mind repeating the story. Bayonet is also Koishikawa/Kokura marked.
-Type 38 carbine, Kokura Arsenal (series 2), cal. 6.5x50SR, Missing dust cover, with another Kokura bayonet & scabbard.
-Type 99, Kokura Arsenal (series 24), cal. 7.7x58. Has anti-aircraft sight but no drain holes in stock, has dust cover but missing monopod. Type 30 bayonet is marked to Toyada Automatic Loom Works, Nagoya. Also below rifle is a clip of 7.7x58 ammunition.
-Type 99 Long Rifle, Toyo Kogyo (series 35), cal. 7.7x58. missing dust cover & monopod.
-Type I, Gardone, FNA-Brescia, or Beretta? Italy, late 1930s, cal. 6.5x50SR. Carcano action, made under terms of the Tripartite Pact for Japan. Repro sling.
-Type 97 hand grenade
-Type 99 “Kiska” grenade with part of its paper instruction label remaining.
-Type 14 pistol, Toriimatsu, April, 1944, cal. 8mm Nambu. Has ‘Luzon, P.I.’ Scratched on the right side of the frame.
-loaded feed strip of 7.7x58SR ammunition for the Type 92 heavy machine gun, with the box it was issued in. This ammunition was developed for the machine gun first, the later 7.7 ammunition for the Type 99 rifle was not interchangeable with it.
-12.7mm Breda (12.7x81SR) ball.
-20mm Type 100 (20x142) HE-T, with cardboard transport tube.
-25mm Type 96 (25x163) HE.
-37mm Type 94 (37x132R) AP-HE.
-Type 90 Helmet, with Army star. According to the experts on the Japanese Forum, the characters on the chinstrap read "2 of 2 Mikubo Keiji". So now I know this was Keiji Mikubo's helmet. Thanks again to them for their help


-Zhong Zheng Shi (Chiang Kai Shek) model Mauser short rifle, 21st Arsenal, Chungking, China 1945, cal. 7.92x57. One of the better quality ZZS rifles, with the arrow, gearwheel logo. There is a better description of this rifle with the research that has come out since I originally posted this. I need to look thatup at some point.
-Kar. 98k, Mauser Oberndorf 1930s, cal. 7.92x57. This one came from Navy Arms this way. The barrelled action & bolt are Chinese 98k, in a Yugoslav stock, with bands & triggerguard from who knows where (mostly hand numbered). I should've gotten an early, solid 98k stock before all the RC's went up in price.
-Type 38, Koishikawa Arsenal, Tokyo, 1900s, cal. 6.5x50SR. This is the rifle with the most character I've ever owned. It is a very early Type 38 (106,000 serial range) with the mum overstamped very crudely with three circles. I think the stock is hand made (look how thick the wrist is compared to the rifle below it). The rear tang on the triggerguard is hand-hammered, and then there are those sheet metal repairs nailed on, almost like American Indian tack decoration on older rifles. It came out of China, and I'm going with the theory that it got there before WWII.
Model 1903 Mauser, Koishikawa Arsenal, Tokyo. This is the same Siamese Mauser shown in the WWI section. With the alteration to the 52mm long cartridge it more properly belongs here.
-Type 66 Arisaka, Kokura Arsenal, Japan, late 1920s-early 1930s, cal. 8x52R. The Siamese version of the Arisaka features a different rear sight, and a slightly deeper bellied stock at the magazine for the rimmed Siamese round.


I know this one’s a little crowded now, but at least it’s not watermarked. Until I can figure out my posting issues here, it will have to stay that way.
37M, Budapest 1930's, cal. .380 ACP
-Hungarian 36M hand grenade.
-Hungarian 38M helmet. Similar to the German helmet in shape, has an external bracket on the rear to hang it from a pack strap.

-Czech Model 32-34 helmet as used by the Slovak Republic Army on the Eastern Front. Blue band was for friendly recognition as helmet was considered too close in shape to Russian helmet.
-Romanian Mod. 1939 helmet (The Dutch M.34 as supplied to Romania), with the crest of King Carol II. Still with Dutch liner.These crests were later removed, and this crest is likely a reproduction.
-Romanian Mod. 1939 helmet, later model with no crest and as fitted with modified German M31 liner.
-35M, Budapest 1938, cal. 8x56R. With repro front sight hood courtesy of the late John Wall, well known to members of these boards. Thank you, John. Neat rifle. Box of Hungarian brass-cased 8x56R, along with clip of steel-cased, 1943-dated Hungarian 8x56R below.
-43M, Budapest 1940s, cal. 7.92x57. Bayonet above & scabbard below.
-VZ-24, Brno 1926, cal. 7.92x57. Has three line Brno address on reciver ring. E lion 26. Clip of 1934-dated Sellier & Bellot 7.92x57 ammo below.
-VZ-24, Brno, ca. 1938-45 7.92x57. Bubba-ed but matching bolt handle, blank receiver ring with cypher of Slovak Republic by the serial #. Scabbard above, bayonet below. Acquisition of this rifle was made possible by our friends at C&Rsenal, thanks.
-M.95 carbine, Steyr rebuilt 1933, cal. 8x56R. Has Austrian eagle on receiver ring above Steyr name. 1937-dated box of pre-Anschluss marked and clip of 1938-dated post-Anschluss marked Austrian 8x56R below.
-VZ-24, Brno late 1930s, cal. 7.92x57. scrubbed crest of Carol II of Romania on Receiver. Bayonet & scabbard below.

Great Britain & Commonwealth:

-British MK.II helmet. Improved version of the WWI Mk.I, with better liner and elasticised chinstrap, dated 1940.
-Mk.II helmet manufactured in South Africa, painted desert tan, with holes for a neck covering in the rear of the brim, dated 1943?
-Mk.III 'turtle' helmet, dated 1944. First came into general use about the time of the Normandy landings.
-Rifle No. 4 Mk.I Lee-Enfield, Fazakerly 1943, cal. .303. No.4Mk.I bayonet below, No.7Mk.I bayonet/scabbard/frog above.
-Rifle No.1 Mk. III* SMLE, Lithgow 1920. With some sort of canvas sling.
-Rifle No.1 Mk.III* SMLE, Ishapore 1940. Wire wrapped for grenade launching. not sure of the nomenclature of the bayonet below it, but it's marked Mk. II* 10 42 J U.
-Rifle No.5 Mk.I, Fazakerly 1944. The 'Jungle Carbine'.
-Revolver No.2 Mk.I*, Enfield 1941, cal. .380/200.
-Webley Mk. IV, Webley & Scott, Birmingham 1930s-40s, cal. .380/200.
-Inglis Hi-Power, MkI*, John Inglis and Company, Toronto, Canada, 1944-45, cal. 9x19.
-No36 Mills Bomb, Canadian made, filler plug dated 1944.
-below the Jungle Carbine, charger (clip) of 5 rounds of .303, made by Radway Green in 1944.
-.5-inch Vickers (12.7x81) AP-T FG Mk.I.Z, dated 1943.
-.55 Boys (14x99R) Kynoch, 1939.
-15mm BESA (15x104), dummy, Kynoch, 1940.
-2-Pounder Pom-Pom (40x158R), HE, 1943.
-2-Pounder (40x304R), AP, 1942.
-6-Pounder (57x441R), AP-T, 1940.
-17-Pounder (76.2x583R), AP, 1944.


-M1889 Krag-Jorgensen, Copenhagen Arsenal, Denmark 1898, cal. 8x58R. This Krag's loading gate pivots out as opposed to down on the Norwegian. Danish arsenal 8x58R round dated 1918, but with soft point bullet, bayonet & scabbard below.
-M1894 Krag-Jorgensen, OEWG Steyr, 1897, cal. 6.5x55. 1912 dated 6.5x55 round below.
-M1895 Dutch Mannlicher, Steyr 1896, cal. 6.5x53R. The Dutch M1895 bolt is identical to the Romanian Md.1892. Duffle cut, nice markings, bayonet & scabbard below.
-M1895 Dutch Colonial Cavalry Carbine, Hembrug 1921, cal. 6.5x53R. Right butt has a carved heart with an arrow through it, above the name ISMAIL A. Left butt has a large R in a circle branded into it. Below is a clip of Dutch 6.5x53R, dated 1941. I believe I read this was East Indies produced. Have to double check that one.
-M1914 Colt, Kongsberg Arsenal, Norway, 1929, cal. 11.25mm (.45acp). Norwegian license built Colt 1911, with parkerized finish and modified slide release.
-On the left the Danish M23 helmet with the Army’s badge. As well as the unusual shape, these helmets were unique in having individual serial numbers inside the liner.
-Dutch M1934 helmet with Lion of Nassau badge.
-The hand grenade on the left is a Dutch Number 1 grenade, with its screw off cap. Many of these went on to be used by German forces after the occupation.
-Danish M23 grenade, training version. These continued to be produced by the Germans during the occupation.


-M1935 Mauser, Fabrique Nationale, 1940. Cal. 7.65x53. This Mauser 98 action short rifle began to replace the Model 1889 Mausers in Belgian service from the mid-1930s.
-M1889/36 Mauser, Manufacture D’Armes de L’Etat, ca.1936-40, cal. 7.65x53. The M1889 rifles were shortened and updated to closely resemble the handling of the M1935. As well as the changes to the stock & barrel bands/bayonet lug, the metal shroud around the barrel was removed & replaced by a wooden handguard, and the shroud around the cocking piece on the bolt was changed to a Model 98 type.
-Belgian M1931 helmet with the lion of Belgium.
-Model 1935 Belgian Browning HiPower pistol, FN, Belgium, late 1930s, cal. 9mm Parabellum. With original holster.
-F1 style grenade with Belgian model 24 fuze.
-5cm rifle grenade, HE, appears to have been used with a cup-type grenade launcher.


-Beretta M1934, Beretta, 1940s, cal. .380 ACP. Has Italian Air Force acceptance mark, but no slide legend. Bought this pistol with no mag, and the mag cost me almost as much as the pistol.

-Italian M.33 helmet of the 8th Alpini. Missing the feather which goes behind the pompon on the left side. I know the green pompon color means something like the batallion number, but I can't find that one right now.
-Clip of 6.5x52 ammunition dated 1936.
-Box of three clips of 7.35x52 ammunition dated 1938.
-47x194R AP for the 47/32 tank & anti-tank guns, dated February, 1939.

-Long Solothurn (20x138B) HEI-T, BPD (Bombrini-Parodi-Delfino), 1940.
-12.7mm Breda (12.7x81SR) HE, BPD, 1940.
-8x59 Breda, steel case, 1943.
-20 round charger for the Breda Modello 30 machine gun, loaded with 7.35x52 ammunition, dated 1939.
-SRCM “Red Devil” hand grenade.
-Fucile Modello 91/38 Carcano, Terni 1941, cal. 6.5x52. What the Italians went back to when they switched back from 7.35 to 6.5. And the Italian collectors are so sick of this they'll probably take a swing at me, but somebody's gonna ask. This is the Oswald variant.
-Fucile Modello 41, Armaguerra Cremona 1943, cal. 6.5x52. The Italians are one of the few militaries who decided they needed to go back from a short rifle to a longer rifle.
-Moschetto Modello 91/38 per Truppi Speciali, FNA-Brescia 1942-44, cal. 6.5x52. Bayonet above, scabbard below.
-Moschetto Modello 91 da Cavalleria, Brescia 1937, cal. 6.5x52. Couldn't put this 91 cavalry carbine in the WWI section because of the date, but also the chamber is rounded (hard to see in this photo). Before the mid 30s, the chamber would have been flat-sided.
-Moschetto Modello 91/38 da Cavalleria, Gardone V.T. 1941, cal. 6.5x52. note the rear sights on the 91 carbine & the 38 carbine.
-M.95 Mannlicher carbine, Steyr, 1915, cal. 8x50R. AOI marked. Taken by the Italians as reparations after WWI and issued to local troops in East Africa.


-Czech M30 helmet. A slight cheat. There are no indications on this particular helmet that it was Ethiopian used. It is known, however, that this type of helmet was used by the Ethiopian Imperial Guard in 1935 & 1936, as well as in other countries in the inter-war era.

-M36 Bulgarian helmet, 1st type, with rolled edge. Unfortunately suffered a repainting & relinering in the communist era.

-Box of Greek 7.92x57 ammunition dated 1940 & clip of Greek ammo from the same factory dated 1939.
-FN Model 1922, Herstal, Belgium Cal. .32 ACP. This is a real cheat. This is a commercial, post-war pistol I just happen to own, but the Yugoslavs had a bunch of these and the Greeks and others had them during the war as well, so consider this just a stand-in for what they looked like.
-Bulgarian stick grenade.
-FN M1930 Mauser, FN, Belgium 1930s, cal. 7.92x57. Greek contract rifle. Bayonet is not Greek marked, but is an FN export bayonet, appropriate for these rifles.
-M1924 Yugoslav Mauser, Kragujevac Arsenal, Yugoslavia 1933 or 1939, cal. 7.92x57. The bayonet below it doesn't fit this rifle. It's a M1924b bayonet, which I believe is intended for the shortest of the Yugoslav carbines, or possibly for the Mexican M1912 rifles which Yugoslavia converted to M1924 specs. I see different things in different sources.
-M1924 Mauser Type I Cavalry Carbine, Kragujevac Arsenal, Yugoslavia 1937, cal. 7.92x57. This carbine is the same as the rifle above, except for the side sling swivel on the wrist, the lower band with both bottom & side swivels, and the bent handle bolt. A Type II carbine would be the same as this one, but with a straight handle bolt like the rifle's.
-Yugoslav Model 1924b, cal. 7.92x57, Uzice Arsenal, late 1930s-early 1940s. This is a converted Gewehr 98. Yugoslav markings on the receiver, fraktur proofs and German type serial numbers on the smaller metal parts.
-M.95 Mannlicher, Steyr 1903, cal. 8x56R. Bulgarian crested carbine. Clip of 1939-dated Bulgarian 8x56R ammunition below.
-M.95/34, Steyr, originally 1917, 8x56R. Bulgarian carbine shortened from M.95 long rifle. Rifle rear sight leaf gradations changed accordingly.
-FN M1930 Mauser Carbine, FN, Belgium early 1930s, cal. 7.92x57. Ethiopian contract carbine with ornate lion crest as well as Lion of Judah acceptance marking. Passed through UK at some point as British proofs have been applied. Rare bird (or lion). This is not one of the recent imports from Ethiopia.

United States:

-U.S. Rifle M1 (Garand), Springfield Armory, Springfield, MA. 1942, cal. .30-06. Nice early WWII Garand, 506,000 serial # range, 2-42 barrel date, all the bits & pieces as they should be for being manufactured about March of 42. And it looks like it's been around a little bit. Clip of 8 M2 ball rounds & M1 bayonet by American Fork & Hoe above with Victory Plastics scabbard below.
-M1 carbine, Inland division, General Motors Corp., Dayton, OH. 1943, cal. .30 Carbine. Flip sight, 8-43 barrel date, mag. pouch by Charlotte Tent & Awning, 1943, early sling. 1944 dated .30 carbine round below.
-M1903A1, Rock Island Arsenal, Rock Island, IL. rebuilt 1940s, cal. .30-06. High # Rock Island receiver, 1930 dated Springfield barrel, grey-green parkerizing, rebuilt into a C stock in WWII. Blued M1905 bayonet w/ Victory Plastics scabbard, S A 1918 dated. M1907 sling is one half WWI, 1918 dated, one half WWII, with steel fittings.
-Mk.II frag grenade, yellow w/ filler plug on bottom, pre-war or early WWII.
Mk.II frag grenade green w/ yellow band at neck, no filler plug in bottom, late WWII.
-Clip of 5 rounds ball M2, wartime date.
-Bandolier of Frankford Arsenal Ball M1 (174 grain bullet), dated 1938.
-M1903A3, L.C. Smith Corona Typewriter Co., Syracuse, NY. 1943. CMP Greek return 03A3. Greek rebuild, SC receiver, RA barrel, black finish. Repro sling.
-M1911A1, Remington-Rand, 1943, cal. .45 ACP, w/ 1943 dated M1916 holster.
-M1 helmet, front seam, fixed bale shell (for non helmet types, that means it was made between 1941 & 1943), with Hood Rubber Company liner. Out of about 33 million helmet liners made during WWII, only a little over 200 thousand were made with the Hood Rubber company's process.
M1917A1 helmet. Improved version of M1917 with better liner & fabric chinstrap.
Vertical on left -76mm APC (76.2x539R) for the 76mm gunned M4 medium tank & the M18 tank destroyer, case dated 1945.
Vertical on right-57mm AP-T(57x441R) for the 57mm anti-tank gun M1, Frankford Arsenal, 1943.
Horizontal beneath the rifles- .50 BMG(12.7x99), FA 1938.
20mm Hispano(20x110) Ball round, BBC 1942. Used in the P-38 Lightning & other aircraft.
37x145R HE-T, FA 1940, used in the P-39 Airacobra and other aircraft, also on PT boats.
37x223R T27 HE shell, as used in various 37mm tank & anti-tank guns.
75x350R HE C.B&C. co., 1944, as used in the 75mm M3 &M4 tank and various 75mm guns.


Admin Emeritus
19,083 Posts
That is a fine collection with some outstanding pieces. The 39 and 36 helmets are very tough as well as the m/26.

Gold Bullet member
2,672 Posts
Thank you for going through the trouble of photographing and sharing your collection. It is impressive. Any collector worth his salt would be proud of it.

Diamond Member with Oak Leaves and Swords
3,472 Posts
Hi John,
Great stuff! And excellent photography too. I had forgotten who owned the late Turkish M1908 made for the Ottoman Macedonian Gendarmerie! Can you post close-ups of the receiver markings? Many thanks for sharing your excellent collection.
Best Regards,
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