Appreciate your compliments but not much of a detective actually, as I was just reading off of the captions. Yes these are most likely locally captured / procured weapons. There were many GEWs that were captured and also used as trainers by Japan.Great detective work Edokko.
Now I notice the arm bands. Was that a tip off?
I wonder if the rifles were captured from the Chinese? I know China manufactured some 1888 style rifles by I don't think they had the barrel jacket. these look like they do but not positive.