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Unrated seaman. Sent to sea without A school, usually dumped into 1st division, get to choose a rating and learn it through an apprenticeship program.
 

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I think your assumptions are kind of backwards. First, they teach basic firefighting and damage control in bootcamp, as well as a general overview of how a ship works. Sailors going to a ship from bootcamp aren't completely mystified by what goes on when they arrive. Second everyone, regardless of training has a lot to learn when they get onboard. In addition to "the things they don't teach you at school", every ship is unique, even in the same class and you have to become acclimatized to that ship. Our senior enlisted have to requalify to perform their watches even if they'd done them before and have been on the same ship (I suspect the engineering chiefs cheated on tracing the piping in the main spaces).
Third, the apprentice program was the way everyone learned their jobs at sea for thousands of years. I think the A school concept cropped up during WW2 when sonar and radar became too complicated to learn via apprenticeship. It was a good idea but as usual they slopped a new coat of paint on everything whether it needed it or not and now even cooks have an A school.
While A school has become the norm rather than the exception there is still a place for a program where you can find out if you'll like a job before you actually commit to doing it.
 

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Hmmm.... So he received the GWOT-EM while still an E1 Seaman Recruit?
GWOT didn't exist when I was in, but national defense ribbon, yes issued in bootcamp (in times of war or whatever replaced it under the UN). He doesn't have any hashmarks under the anchor so he's been in less than 6 months.
 
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