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I have had an out of battery discharge or "slam fire" with my M1 Garand rifle using HXP Greek surplus M2 .30-06 ball ammo. I was prone, slow-fire, loading cartridges directly into the chamber and then "easing" the bolt forward to a point I assumed [never "assume" yes?] was OK, and then having it run forward under the op-rod spring's pressure. Every now and then a heel of the hand rap was required on the op rod.

Well, it could be the following things:
1) The firing pin could be out of spec. If the firing pin gets elongated, it could basically fly forward when the bolt turns into locking engagement with the receiver with sufficient force to strike the primer. This is often attributed to firearms like the French 49/56 firing pin, and softer commercial primers, but it is not unknown.
2) There was a foreign body or some kind of material adhering to the face of the bolt, possibly even a primer from a previously fired cartridge, or some kind of piece of the case or grit, gravel, etc. that struck the primer with sufficient force when the bolt closed on the chambered cartridge.

Good luck figuring out what happened! It is disconcerting. A fellow M1 enthusiast gifted me one of those single-shot clip adapters because he did not care for me loading on the line with a cartridge directly in the chamber. Certainly the Garand manual says that's how a single-shot should be loaded, but it is easy enough to temporarily install the single-shot adapter in lieu of a clip into the magazine, twist the cartridge under the feed lips, and then load the single cartridge that way.
 
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