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I'm no expert on these rifles but I've done a lot of reading here on the forums about them. From what I gather, there are two main ways they could've ended up in Finland.

1) Britain ordered a large amount of Type 30s to use as training rifles during WW1. Britain then sold them to Finland when the Russian Revolution broke out.

2) Russia did purchase Type 30's to use in WW1 but I don't know how many they bought, I've heard varying amounts.

And as for the Russo-Japanese War, I don't believe Russia captured any significant amount of Type 30s.
Russia purchased around 600,000 Arisaka's of various types from Japan during WW1 and Britain purchased another 150,000. These were used by support troops or in secondary fronts to free up Enfield's and Mosin's for use on the Eastern and Western fronts respectively. Once Enfield production had hit it's stride, Britain gave most of it's Arisaka's to Russia who was still short of modern rifles. Britain never sold Japanese rifles to Finland, Finnish CG marked Type 30's like yours were taken from Russian arsenals or from disarmed Russian troops when Finland declared independence from Russia in 1918. After the Finnish Civil War most Japanese rifles were transferred to the Civil Guard and used by them until enough Mosin's were acquired to rearm them in the mid 1920's
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