Gunboards Forums banner

261 - 280 of 476 Posts

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #261
The Great White Fleet, Part 183

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, a new method of coaling was discussed seriously: coaling at sea. Of course vessels had always transferred, persons, stores and, since mechanisation, coal while at sea, but these transfers were dependent on clam weather, carried out at very slow speeds and very limited in scale.

2.2. 18 7 20 2 6 1 HMS Captain 2.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 2 6 1 HMS Captain at Chatham 1869.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 2 6 1 HMS Captain in dock.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 2 6 HMS Captain CO Captain Hugh Talbot Burgoyne 1.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 2 6 HMS Captain CO Captain Hugh Talbot Burgoyne.jpg
In August 1870, for instance, the Royal Navy’s Channel Squadron transferred fifty tons of coal using ships’ boats to the HMS Captain (CO Captain Hugh Talbot Burgoyne, VC), at the rate of five tons per hour.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #262
The Great White Fleet, Part 184

2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 1 HMS Captain 1.jpg
BTW: HMS Captain, a masted so-called “turret ship”, was ill-fated. Designed to have a freeboard of 8 feet 6 inches, a major miscalculation meant that she had a freeboard of only six feet eight inches (a difference of 22 inches) and she was top-heavy due to the turrets (the original plans were for HMS Captain to be armed with two 9-inch 12-ton guns in each turret,

2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 1 HMS Captain Turret on deck.jpg
she was equipped with two 12-inch 25-ton guns in each turret instead) and with the highest masts in the Royal Navy. 7 September 1870 in a gale during her maiden voyage she rolled beyond her limit of 21 degrees, capsized and sank.

2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 2 HMS Captain survivors.jpg
There were only 27 survivors;

2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 3 HMS Captain inventor Captain Cowper Phipps Coles 1.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 3 HMS Captain inventor Captain Cowper Phipps Coles.jpg
Captain Cowper Phipps Coles, her inventor,

2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 5 HMS Captain crew.jpg
and her CO, Captain Burgoyne drowned along with about 480 others.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #263
The Great White Fleet, Part 185

Being posted to HMS Captain would have conferred immense prestige. It was a privilege to serve on HMS Captain! Therefore amongst the casualties were several sons of high ranking politicians and Members of Parliament.

· 2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 9 First Lord of the Admiralty Hugh Childers.jpg
Midshipman Leonard George Eardley Childers, 18 years old, was the only son of the MP for Pontefract and First Lord of the Admiralty Hugh Childers.

2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 10 HMS Monarch 1 Portland Harbor, 1870.JPG 2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 10 HMS Monarch 1.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 10 HMS Monarch 1868 plan 2.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 10 HMS Monarch 1868 plan 1.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 10 HMS Monarch 1868 turret.jpg
He was on board after his father had transferred him from HMS Monarch, the world's first ocean-going turret ship.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #264
The Great White Fleet, Part 186

· 2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 11 Sidney Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Lea.jpg
Midshipman The Honorable William Reginald Herbert was only 16 years old. His father, Sidney Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Lea. had also been an MP and three times in the Cabinet as Secretary of State at War

2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 12 Florence Nightingale, c. 1860.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 12 Florence Nightingale and some of the 38 ´handmaidens of the Lord`.jpg
(he sent Florence Nightingale to the Crimea).

· 2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 13 Thomas George Baring, 1st Earl of Northbrook.jpg
Thomas George Baring, 1st Earl of Northbrook was Under-Secretary of State for War. His second son, Arthur Napier Thomas Baring, was a 16-year-old midshipman on HMS Captain.

· 2.2. 18 7 20 2 7 15 Sir Henry William Ripley, 1st Baronet.png
Sir Henry William Ripley, 1st Baronet had served as an MP. He had entertained the Prime Minister in his own home and had used his influence to have

2.2. 18 7 20 2 16 HMS Captain Midshipman Ripley.jpg
his 18 years-old son, Midshipman Alfred Ripley, posted to the fatal ship just four days before it foundered.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #265
The Great White Fleet, Part 187

It was hoped that coaling at sea would function in a similar way to that from a collier in port, but with the increased convenience that it could be accomplished while a fleet was moving or blockading on the open sea. Stores had often been transferred at sea in the past, and coal was no exception. But these processes were slow and limited, and could not hope to satisfy a modern warship’s needs, especially after 1880 with the new pre-dreadnought battleships, powered by highly consuming coal-fired triple-expansion steam engines, capable of top speeds between 16 and 18 knots.

The first large scale test in coaling ships at sea, made by the British admiralty, took place in 1890 in the Atlantic at a point 500 miles south of the Azores in water 2000 fathoms deep. Ten ships of war were coaled, each vessel taking enough coal to enable her to steam back to Torbay, 1800 miles away. In this case the collier was lashed alongside the battleship it was feeding, thick fenders being interposed to prevent damage, but nevertheless as the colliers got light they pitched considerably and one or two sustained dents in their sides. The ships did not roll, being kept bows-on to the swell, which became heavy before the coaling was completed. The coal was taken in by derricks at the main deck ports. It was clear that had the sea been really rough coaling in this fashion would have been impossible.

2.2. 18 7 20 2 20 collier steamship John Bowes 1.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 2 20 collier steamship John Bowes 2.jpg
BTW: The collier “John Bowes”, launched and owned by the General Iron Screw Collier Company 30 June 1852, is often said to be the first steam driven iron screw collier in the world. She had a 60 foot long hatch to allow quick and safe loading and a double bottom to carry water ballast, which was pumped out by her main engine prior to loading cargo. This saved time and money in loading solid ballast and having to pay for the ballast to be dumped. She entered service in July 1852 and was able to make the round trip between the Tyne and London in 5 days, carrying 650 tons of coal. This was as much as two sail colliers would achieve in a month.

In fact the first steam driven iron screw collier was the collier “Bedlington”, built in 1842 by T.D. Marshall of South Shields for the Bedlington Coal Company, but she worked locally only (albeit in the open sea), she was not a bulk carrier but a type of ferry and built to carry loaded coal waggons from Blyth to the Tyne, where the coal would be emptied directly into waiting coal ships for onward delivery to London. In the hold there were three lines of rails on which the waggons would sit, while on deck was a large steam-derrick. The derrick was used to load the full waggons into the hold and then unload them above the awaiting coal ship’s hold. She was not considered a success and after lying idle for some time she was converted into a regular cargo vessel. 1854 she was sunk by Russian shore batteries in the Baltic during the Crimean War.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #266
The Great White Fleet, Part 188

Coaling in the open ocean with two ships alongside was regarded as a dangerous evolution. Colliers were equipped with cotton-bale fenders, which would protect the ships when waves were slight. But if the swell caused either ship to roll more than three or four degrees or rise more than one or two feet rendered coaling too dangerous to attempt. Thus coaling on open waters was regarded as highly problematic and on many occasions was impossible.

2.2. 18 7 20 2 25 APPLEBYS LTD Temperley Fixed Transporters - Antique Engineering Advert 1909.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 2 25 Coaling Temperley transporters 1.JPG 2.2. 18 7 20 2 25 Temperley Transporter 1904.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 2 25 Temperley Transporter, 1904.jpg
To solve this issue, over 60 systems for the coaling of the fleet at sea were submitted to the Admiralty between 1888 and 1905, and several, like the “Temperley transporters” (an early form of overhead crane invented and patented by John Ridley Temperley and Joseph Temperley in 1892), were extensively tested. It consisted of a long beam or girder of steel, which was hoisted by the ship's derrick so that one end hung over the hold of the collier, with an inclination in that direction, and the other over a position on the ship's deck convenient for the reception of the coal. On the underside of the girder, ran a travelling apparatus, fitted with a sheave through which ran a steel hawser. The traveller being run out to the extremity of the girder, the hawser, which is furnished with a hook, is lowered into the hold of the collier where ten or twelve 2 hundredweight bags (~101kg each) are attached to it. The bags are then hoisted up to the traveller, and as soon as they reach the the traveller itself, it is drawn inboard by the same hawser. The traveller is stopped over the point at which the coal is to be received on deck, and then the bags are lowered on to the deck. The traveller runs back out on its own, due to its own weight, to receive a fresh load. More than a ton of coal can be moved from collier to ship in a minute. One man is required to work the hoist on the collier, while 20 men will be in the hold filling the bags and delivering them to the deck, where 5 or so will transfer the bags to the lift. One or two men suffice for the overhead work; their station is in the trestle trees. On board the receiving ship a few men will be stationed at the shear head to empty the bags into a canvas shoot, and then return them, while there will be the usual force of bunker trimmers.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #267
The Great White Fleet, Part 189

In July 1898 “The Times” reported that a French collier, using a Temperly Transporter had transferred 200 tons of coal to two warships while steaming at six knots, the procedure only halting when the collier was damaged in a collision with one of the warships.

Also in July the Royal Navy undertook tests with Temperley Overhead transporters. The Admiralty documents for 23 July 1899 reveal the results of one day coaling eight battleships and 18 cruisers.

One result was that for the efficiency of coaling the ship’s complement or size mattered little, it depended on whether or not they had Temperley transporters (and that depended on the suitabilty of the hatches) and the efficiency at which each crew could operate, as well as the ship’s arrangements for taking on coal.

The eight Battleships took on a total of 4,017 tons,

2.2. 18 7 20 2 30 1 HMS Mars 1896.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 2 30 1 HMS Mars Captain Henry John May.jpg
for instance HMS Mars (1896, CO Captain Henry John May, complement 774) took on 582 tons at 131.77 per hour

2.2. 18 7 20 2 30 2 HMS Majestic 1895.jpg
and HMS Majestic (1895, CO Captain George Le Clerc Egerton, complement 833) took on 500 tons at 109.09 tons per hour. The 18 cruisers took on a total of 6,561 tons,

2.2. 18 7 20 2 30 3 HMS Arethusa 1882.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 2 30 3 HMS Arethusa Captain Alexander Edward Bethell.jpg
for instance the protected cruisers HMS Arethusa (1882, CO Captain Alexander Edward Bethell, complement 313) took on 276 tons at 92.51 tons per hour, 2.2. 18 7 20 2 30 4 HMS Diadem 1896.jpg
HMS Diadem (1896, CO Captain Harry Seawell Frank Niblett, complement 705) took on 675 tons at 91.5 tons per hour

2.2. 18 7 20 2 30 5 HMS Niobe 1897.jpg
and HMS Niobe (1897, CO Captain Alfred Leigh Winsloe, complement 685) took on 800 tons at 84.2 tons per hour. The total Temperly Transporter coaling for the day on these 26 ships was 10,578 tons, which averaged out to 66 tons per hour for each of the 26 ships coaled that day.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #268
The Great White Fleet, Part 190

2.2. 18 7 20 3 0 3 HMS Royal Sovereign at anchor, about 1897.jpg
Ideas continued to arrive at the Admiralty, but it not until 1901 were more serious trials carried out when, using a cable system, the battleship HMS Royal Sovereign (CO Captain Charles Henry Adair) coaled from the collier Rosario. Relying on the collier’s winches nineteen tons per hour was transferred; to improve this result, stronger winches would be required.

2.2. 18 7 20 3 0 3 battleship HMS Empress of India.jpg
Further trials the same year involving the battleship HMS Empress of India (CO Captain John Ferris) used, instead of winches, weights suspended from the collier’s mast to keep the line taut. Neither system was developed further, though.


Despite this, by 1915, no mechanism for coaling at sea had yet been adopted by the Royal Navy, and British warships on manoeuvres still had to leave the fleet and coal in sheltered harbours.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #269 (Edited)
The Great White Fleet, Part 191

The United States Navy was the first to carry out under-way coaling experiments, outside Sandy Hook, in November 1899.

2.2. 18 7 20 3 0 4 USS Massachusetts 1.jpg
First the battleship USS Massachusetts (BB-2, CO Captain Nicholl Ludlow)

2.2. 18 7 20 3 0 4 USS Massachusetts coaling from a barge 1.jpg
made tests with “Temperley (temperly) transporters” while towing a coal barge abeam.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #270
I checked the new forum, and it seems to work for me, even with pictures, I just have to figure out how to post a headline above my post.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #272
Me too, Denny, me too!!!

No clue still how to post a headline.

It is more comfortable to post pics, as now you can post all for the post at once, but on the thumbnails you do not see the caption any longer when you put the cursor over the pic. You need to open the pic to see the caption.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #273
Me too, Denny, me too!!!

No clue still how to post a headline.

It is more comfortable to post pics, as now you can post all for the post at once, but on the thumbnails you do not see the caption any longer when you put the cursor over the pic. You need to open the pic to see the caption.
Not so easy, now I quoted myself.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #274

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #275
As I said, not so easy. Now I tried to use the button "insert picture",and I got the photos three times, my mistake, sorry.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #276
The Great White Fleet, Part 192

The warships were the cruiser USS New York (Armored Cruiser No. 2, CO Captain French Ensor Chadwick)

and the battleship USS Massachusetts in 1899. Over a period of five days in 1899 both ships towed the collier some 300-400ft behind – the rougher the sea the greater the distance – and achieved an average transfer rate of twenty to twenty-two tons of coal per hour while travelling at five knots. The tramway between the two shuttled the bags of coal from one to the other. It took about 20 seconds to make a one-way trip. There main cable went from USS Massachusetts to the collier and a sea anchored it dragging astern. Onboard the the USS Massachusetts was a chute that guided the bags to the deck. The carriage had a load of 840 lbs. of coal. The upper rope is the sea anchor line or main cable; the two lower ropes are the conveyor lines. Apparently the main cable is not necessary; the conveyor lines can support the shuttle while carrying coal.

In the coaling of ships at sea the cableway rendered great service. The conditions under which this operation had to be carried out presented many difficulties, especially in rough water. One of the chief obstacles was the maintenance of the necessary tension on the cable used in conveying the coal from the collier to the ship.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #278
second attempt:

The Great White Fleet, Part 192

The warships were the cruiser USS New York (Armored Cruiser No. 2, CO Captain French Ensor Chadwick)
3743050
3743051
3743052
3743053
2.2. 18 7 20 3 3 USS Marcellus coaling the cruiser USS New York at sea 1899.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 3 3 USS Marcellus coaling the cruiser USS New York at sea in 1899.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 3 3 USS New York 1898.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 3 3 USS New York Captain French Ensor Chadwick.jpg
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #279
2.2. 18 7 20 3 4 USS Marcellus coaling the battleship USS Massachusetts at sea in 1899.jpg 2.2. 18 7 20 3 5 USS Marcellus coaling the battleship USS Massachusetts at sea in 1899 1.jpg
and the battleship USS Massachusetts in 1899. Over a period of five days in 1899 both ships towed the collier some 300-400ft behind – the rougher the sea the greater the distance – and achieved an average transfer rate of twenty to twenty-two tons of coal per hour while travelling at five knots. The tramway between the two shuttled the bags of coal from one to the other. It took about 20 seconds to make a one-way trip. There main cable went from USS Massachusetts to the collier and a sea anchored it dragging astern. Onboard the the USS Massachusetts was a chute that guided the bags to the deck. The carriage had a load of 840 lbs. of coal. The upper rope is the sea anchor line or main cable; the two lower ropes are the conveyor lines. Apparently the main cable is not necessary; the conveyor lines can support the shuttle while carrying coal.

In the coaling of ships at sea the cableway rendered great service. The conditions under which this operation had to be carried out presented many difficulties, especially in rough water. One of the chief obstacles was the maintenance of the necessary tension on the cable used in conveying the coal from the collier to the ship.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
11,513 Posts
Discussion Starter #280
The Great White Fleet, Part 193

The most practicable method of coaling at sea devised was the marine cableway of Thomas Spencer Miller and the Lidgerwood Manufacturing Company of New York, which had been tried with some success in the American Navy. It was intended for use between vessels 350 to 500 ft. apart. The ship being coaled takes the collier in tow, steaming at the rate of 4 to 8 knots. It was found that a speed of five knots in moderately rough water will keep the cableway taut and maintain a sufficient distance between the craft.

The collier is fitted with an engine having double cylinders and double friction drums, which is placed just abaft the foremast. A steel rope 3/4 in. in diameter is led from one drum over a pulley at the mast head and thence to a pulley at the head of shear-poles on the vessel being coaled, and brought back to the other drum. The engine moves in the same direction all the time and keeps on winding in both the strands of the conveying rope. Should the two vessels increase the distance between them during the operation of conveying the coal bags, of which two, weighing 420 lb each, may be fastened to the carrier, the extra rope called for is obtained by slipping the upper strand from the drum; this increases the speed of the upper cable. On the other hand should the distance between the vessels be reduced, this operation is reversed, the speed of the upper strand being reduced.

To keep the carriage steady on its return empty, a rope, known as the sea-anchor line, is stretched above the two strands of the conveyor line, and under a pulley on the carriage. This cable is attached to the vessel, resting on a saddle on the shear head, where it leads through the carriage over pulleys at the head of the foremast and mainmast of the collier, running on astern several hundred feet into the sea. A drag or sea-anchor, usually made of canvas and cone-shaped, is attached to the end of this rope. This anchor is used to support the empty carriage on its return to the collier. The diameter of the cones base is graduated to the speed of the vessels. Thus in a smooth-water test, with a ship steaming at 6 knots, one 7 ft. in diameter was used, while the same anchor answered its purpose very well with a ship doing 5 knots in rough water.

2.2. 18 7 20 4 1905 coaling USS Illinois 1.JPG 2.2. 18 7 20 4 1905 coaling USS Illinois 2.JPG 2.2. 18 7 20 4 1905 USS Illinois 1903.jpg
In May 1905 the US Navy tested an improved Miller-Lidgerwood rig using the USS Marcellus and the battleship USS Illinois (BB-7, CO Captain John Augustus Rodgers) near Cape Henry. These coaling tests achieved 35 tph while steaming at seven knots, which again fell short of expectations.
 
261 - 280 of 476 Posts
Top