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Discussion Starter #241
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 158

The Japanese invasion of the Philippines started on 8 December 1941, ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Under the pressure of superior numbers, the defending US forces withdrew to the Bataan Peninsula and to the island of Corregidor at the entrance to Manila Bay.

01.04. 1 2 1 Bataan 2.jpg 01.04. 1 2 1 Bataan Japanese flamethrower in action against a bunker on the Orion-Bagac Line.jpg
3 April 1942 on Bataan the entire Orion-Bagac defence line was subjected to incessant bombings by 100 aircraft and artillery bombardment by 300 artillery pieces from 09:00 to 15:00, which turned the Mount Samat stronghold into an inferno. Thereafter, over the course of the next three days (Good Friday to Easter Sunday 1942), the Japanese 65th Independent Mixed Infantry Brigade (C/O Lieutenant-General Akira Nara 奈良晃)

01.04. 1 2 3 Bataan Japanese soldier of the 4th Division firing type 92 heavy machine gun .jpg 01.04. 1 2 4 Bataan Japanese Lieutenant-General Kitano Kenzo.jpg
and 4th Division (C/O Lieutenant-General Kitano Kenzo 北野憲造) spearheaded the main attack at the left flank of II Corps. Everywhere along the line,

01.04. 1 2 6 Bataan Japanese tank and infantry advancing 2.jpg 01.04. 1 2 6 Bataan Japanese tank column advancing .jpg 01.04. 1 2 6 Bataan Japanese tank Typ 89 column advancing in Bataan.jpg
the American and Filipino defenders were driven back by Japanese tanks and infantry.
 

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Discussion Starter #242
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 159

The situation was hopeless and to continue to resist would not accomplish anything, except to waste the lives of his men.

01.04. 1 2 11 Bataan Major-General Edward Postell King Jr. 1.jpg 01.04. 1 2 11 Bataan Major-General Edward Postell King Jr. 2.jpg
8 April the commander on Bataan, Major-General Edward Postell King Jr.,decided to surrender.

01.04. 1 2 11 Bataan surrender 1.jpg
9 April Col. Everett C. Williams,

01.04. 1 2 11b Bataan surrender Maj. Marshall Hill Hurt 1.jpg
Maj. Marshall Hill Hurt

01.04. 1 2 11c Bataan surrender Cpl. William Edison Burns Jr..jpg
and driver Cpl. William Edison Burns Jr., volunteered to make contact with the Japanese.

01.04. 1 2 20 Bataan Major-General Kameichiro Nagano 1.jpg
Major-General Kameichiro Nagano agreed to meet Gen. King near Lamao near the frontlines. The Japanese retained Col. Williams and sent Maj. Hurt back to Gen. King,

01.04. 1 2 22a Bataan Colonel James Collier 1.jpg
who together with operations officer Col. James V. Collier,

01.04. 1 2 22b Bataan Maj. Wade Rushton Cothran 1.jpg
his aides Maj. Wade Rushton Cothran,

01.04. 1 2 22c Bataan Maj. Achille C. Tisdelle 1.jpg 01.04. 1 2 22c Bataan Maj. Achille C. Tisdelle 2.jpg
Maj. Achille C. Tisdelle and Maj. Hurt boarded two jeeps and drove towards the meeting point.
 

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Discussion Starter #243
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 160

01.04. 1 2 25 Bataan Col. Motoo Nakayama 2.jpg 01.04. 1 2 25 Bataan Col. Motoo Nakayama.jpg
Gen. Nagano told Gen. King that a representative of the Japanese 14th Army, Col. Motoo Nakayama (中山源夫), senior operations officer for the 14th Army,

01.04. 1 2 40 Bataan negotiations surrender 11.jpg 01.04. 1 2 40 Bataan negotiations Gen King, sitting with Col. Williams, Maj. Cothran, and Maj Ti.jpg 01.04. 1 2 40 Bataan negotiations after surrender 1.jpg 01.04. 1 2 32 Bataan negotiations General King with staff and Colonel Nakayama 1.jpg 01.04. 1 2 31 Bataan negotiations General King with staff and Major-General Kameichiro Nagano si.jpg
would head the negotiations at the Balanga elementary school, which became very difficult, as Col. Nakayama urged Gen. King to surrender all U.S. troops on the Philippines, which King refused. Finally 9 April 1942 only General King´s force on Bataan,over 75,000 men (15,000 American and 60,000 Filipino),

01.04. 1 2 50 Bataan troops surrender 1.jpg
surrenderedto the Japanese,

01.04. 1 2 Harpers Ferry, West Virginia 1865..jpg
the largest United States surrender since the American Civil War's Battle of Harper's Ferry 12-15 September 1862,

01.04. 1 2 Harpers Ferry, West General Dixon Stansbury Miles.jpg
when General Dixon Stansbury Miles surrendered with 12,419 men

01.04. 1 2 Harpers Ferry, General Thomas Jonathan Jackson..jpg
to General Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson.

Though the fight there had been an American one, it was (also) Churchill´s nightmare, as he had to fear that it would attract too much attention in the United States and make Roosevelt to re-think the “Europe First” strategy.
 

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Discussion Starter #244
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 161

01.04.03. Churchill´s Nightmare Ceylon

01.04. 1 3 0 0 0 Ceylon map 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 0 0 Ceylon map 2.jpg
Since 1518 Ceylon had been a colony, first of the Portuguese, then the Dutch, followed by the French and from 1796 by the British. Ceylon was of the utmost strategic importance, first because of protection of the main British colony, India, and, second, because the nation owning Ceylon was able to control the Indian Ocean. Once Japanese battleships, aircraft carriers and submarines were based in Ceylon, their domination over the Indian Ocean would be consolidated.

On 8 March 1942, the First Sea Lord Admiral Pound informed Prime Minister Churchill that he regarded Ceylon to be Japan’s next target. He warned its loss would ‘undermine our whole strategic position in the Middle as well as the Far East'. Churchill knew that,

01.04. 1 3 0 0 0 HMS Prince of Wales HMS Repulse loss 1.jpg
after the loss of HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse 10 December 1941,

01.04. 1 3 0 0 1 Johore Bty General Wavell, C.F.D. Brigadier Curtis and C-O Singapore Fortress, .jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 0 1 Lt-Gen Arthur Percival, led by a Japanese officer. capitulation of Allied force.jpg
the Fall of Singapore 15 February 1942, with 80,000 British POWs the largest surrender of British-led forces in history,

01.04. 1 3 0 0 2 bombing of Darwin SS Neptuna explodes after being hit in Darwin Harbour, Februa.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 0 3 bombing of Darwin  19 February 1942 1.jpg
and the Bombing of Darwin 19 February 1942, with 236 killed, 300–400 wounded, 30 aircraft destroyed, 11 vessels sunk, 3 vessels grounded and 25 ships damaged, this was the most dangerous moment of his political career. Just weeks earlier, 29 January 1942, he had to face-down a no-confidence vote in Parliament, formulated by the conservatives and accusing his “incompetent and defensive military leadership”. After a great speech Churchill won with 475 to 25 votes, but there was little doubt it would bring down his battered coalition government, if Ceylon fell. To do the best to avoid this,

01.04. 1 3 0 0 8 Admiral Geoffrey Layton 2.jpg
Ceylon’s Commander in Chief, Vice-Admiral Sir Geoffrey Layton, newly appointed 5 March 1942,

01.04. 1 3 0 0 10 Civil Defence Commissioner Sir Oliver Ernest Goonetilleke 1.jpg
and Civil Defence Commissioner Oliver Ernest Goonetilleke initiated preparations and precautions. These included building several new airstrips, and placing RAF squadrons on the island.

However, what Churchill did not know those days, in reality the Japanese did not have the men, shipping or land-based air power to spare for an invasion and occupation, and did not even intend to make a temporary occupation as a raid. The island did not face a real threat of invasion at any point during the war.
 

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Discussion Starter #245 (Edited)
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 162

01.04.03.01. Ceylon British Eastern Fleet

01.04. 1 3 0 a 20 Admiral James Fownes Somerville 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 20 Admiral James Fownes Somerville 2.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 20 Admiral James Fownes Somerville 3.jpg
Admiral James Fownes Somerville had arrived at Colombo

01.04. 1 3 0 a 20 Admiral James Fownes Somerville 3 with Captain Bisset, walking on deck of HMS .jpg
on the carrier HMS Formidable and assumed command of the Eastern Fleet on 24 March 1942 only. By the end of March 1942 he had assembled the Eastern Fleet, which consisted of British, Australian, Indian and Dutch ships, the latter refugees from the fall of Malaya, together three carriers, five battleships, two heavy and six light cruisers

01.04. 1 3 0 a 21 a HNLMS Sumatra 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 21 a HNLMS Sumatra 2.jpg
(in fact five, as the Dutch HNLMS Sumatra (40, C/O kapitein ter zee (Capt.) Henri Jan Bueninck, RNN) was unfit for frontline duties), 15 destroyers and six submarines. Somerville divided his Fleet into a “fast” and a “slow” force,
 

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Discussion Starter #246
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 163

Force A (C/O C.-in-C. Admiral Somerville) with his old but modernized flagship, the
battleship

01.04. 1 3 0 a 21 HMS Warspite 1942.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 21 HMS WARSPITE in April, May 1942..jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 21 HMS WARSPITE with FORMIDABLE, RESOLUTION and ROYAL SOVEREIGN1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 21 HMS Warspite badge.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 21 HMS Warspite Capt. Fitzroy Evelyn Patrick Hutton, RN.jpg
HMS Warspite (03, 1915, C/O Capt. Fitzroy Evelyn Patrick Hutton, RN),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 Admiral Denis William Boyd, RN 1.jpg
the Aircraft Carriers (C/O Rear-Admiral Denis William Boyd, RN) with

01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Formidable 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Formidable badge.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Formidable Capt. Arthur William La Touche Bisset, RN 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Formidable Capt. Arthur William La Touche Bisset, RN.jpg
HMS Formidable (pennant 67, 1940, C/O Capt. Arthur William La Touche Bisset, RN),
 

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Discussion Starter #247
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 164

01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Formidable plane 0 Flying Cdr. Charles James Norman Atkinson, RN.jpg
with Commander Flying Cdr. Charles James Norman "Skins" Atkinson, RN, with

01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Formidable plane 1 888 Sqdr. badge 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Formidable plane 1 Martlet II from HMS Formidable, 1942.jpg
888 Squadron (C/O Capt. Francis Dayne Gadfrey Bird, RM, 12x Grumman F4F Wildcat Martlet II),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Formidable plane 2 820 Sqdr 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Formidable plane 2 Fairey Albacore after landing on HMS Formidable.jpg
820 Squadron (C/O Lt.Cdr. W. Elliott, RN, 12x Fairey Albacore I) and

01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Formidable plane 3 818 Sqdr. badge.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Formidable plane 3 Fairey Swordfish.jpg
818 Squadron
(C/O Lt.Cdr. Thomas Henry Brown "Harry" Shaw, RN, 9x Albacore I, 1x Fairey Swordfish I) and
 

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Discussion Starter #248
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 165

01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Indomitable 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Indomitable at Colombo, Ceylon 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Indomitable badge2.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Indomitable Capt. Thomas Hope Troubridge, RN.jpg
HMS Indomitable (92, 1941, Flagship, C/O Capt. Thomas Hope Troubridge, RN), with Commander Flying Cdr. Charles Richard Vernon “Dick” Pugh, RN, with

01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Indomitable plane 1 880 Sqdr 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Indomitable plane 1 Sea Hurricane Ib on HMS Indomitable 1942.jpg
880 Squadron (C/O Lt.Cdr. Francis Elton Christopher Judd, RN, 9x Hawker Sea Hurricane Ib),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Indomitable plane 2 800 sqdr.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Indomitable plane 2 Fairey Fulmar with wings folded being wheeled to the l.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Indomitable plane 2 Fairey Fulmar II.jpg
800 Squadron (C/O Lt.Cdr. John Martin Bruen, RN. 12x Fairey Fulmar II),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Indomitable plane 3 827 Sqdr 1.jpg
827 Squadron (C/O Lt.Cdr. Patrick George Osric Sydney-Turner, RN, 12x Albacore) and

01.04. 1 3 0 a 22 HMS Indomitable plane 4 831 Sqdr 1.jpg
831 Squadron
(C/O Lt.Cdr. Peter Lawrence Mortimer, RN, 12x Albacore),
 

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Discussion Starter #249
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 166

still British Eastern Fleet

the 4th Cruiser Squadron with
heavy cruisers
01.04. 1 3 0 a 23 HMS Cornwall 2.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 23 HMS Cornwall 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 23 HMS Cornwall 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 23 HMS Cornwall badge2.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 23 HMS Cornwall's crew parade through Durban. The arrow points to Captain Manwari.jpg
HMS Cornwall (56, 1928, C/O Capt. Percival Clive Wickham Manwaring, RN) and 01.04. 1 3 0 a 24 HMS Dorsetshire 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 24 HMS Dorsetshire 2.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 24 HMS Dorsetshire 1.jpg
01.04. 1 3 0 a 24 HMS Dorsetshire badge 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 24 HMS Dorsetshire Capt. Augustus Willington Shelton Agar.jpg
HMS Dorsetshire
(40, 1930, Capt. Augustus Willington Shelton Agar, RN) and
 

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Discussion Starter #250
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 167

the fast light cruisers

01.04. 1 3 0 a 25 HMS Emerald 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 25 HMS Emerald badge.jpg
HMS Emerald (D 66, 1926, C/O Capt. Francis Cyril Flynn, RN) and

01.04. 1 3 0 a 26 HMS Enterprise 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 26 HMS Enterprise badge.jpg
HMS Enterprise (D 52, 1926, C/O Capt. John Campbell Annesley, RN),


six destroyers of the 2nd Destroyer Flotilla, four British,

01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 1 HMS Paladin 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 1 HMS Paladin badge 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 1 HMS Paladin Capt Anthony Follett Pugsley, RN 3.jpg
HMS Paladin (G 69, C/O Cdr. Anthony Follett Pugsley, RN),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 2 HMS Panther 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 2 HMS Panther badge 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 2 HMS Panther Lt.Cdr. Robert William Jocelyn, RN 3.jpg
HMS Panther
(G 41, C/O Lt.Cdr. Robert William Jocelyn, RN),
 

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Discussion Starter #251
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 168

01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 3 HMS Hotspur 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 3 HMS Hotspur badge 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 3 HMS Hotspur Lt Terence Desmond Herrick, RN 3.jpg
HMS Hotspur (H 01, C/O Lt. Terence Desmond Herrick, RN),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 4 HMS Foxhound 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 4 HMS Foxhound badge 3.jpg
HMS Foxhound (H 69, C/O Lt.Cdr. Geoffrey Hendley Peters, RN),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 10 HMAS Napier 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 10 HMAS Napier badge 2.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 10 HMAS Napier Capt. Stephen Harry Tolson Arliss, RN 1.JPG
and two Australian HMAS Napier (G 97, C/O Capt. Stephen Harry Tolson Arliss, RN),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 11 HMAS Nestor 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 11 HMAS Nestor badge 2.jpg
HMAS Nestor
(G 02, C/O Cdr. Alvord Sydney Rosenthal, RAN),
 

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Discussion Starter #252
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 169

01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 20 HMS Adamant 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 20 HMS Adamant badge 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 20 HMS Adamant Capt. Robert Spencer Warne, RN 1.jpg
six submarines with their depot ship HMS Adamant (F 64, C/O Capt. Robert Spencer Warne, RN),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 21 HMS Truant 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 21 HMS Truant badge 3.jpg
two British HMS Truant (N 68, C/O Lt.Cdr. Edward Francis Balston, RN),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 22 HMS Trusty 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 22 HMS Trusty badge 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 22 HMS Trusty Lt.Cdr. William Donald Aelian King, RN 3.jpg
HMS Trusty
(N 45, C/O Lt.Cdr. William Donald Aelian King, RN),
 

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Discussion Starter #253
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 170

01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 23 HNLMS K-XI 3.jpg
and four Dutch, HNLMS K-XI (N 53, C/O luitenant ter zee 1e klasse (Lt.Cdr.) Adolf Hendrik Deketh, RNLN),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 24 HNLMS K-XIV 3.jpg
HNLMS K-XIV (N 22, C/O luitenant ter zee 1e klasse (Lt.Cdr.) Pieter Andréa Mulock van der Vlies Bik, RNLN),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 25 HNLMS K-XV 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 25 HNLMS K-XV luitenant ter zee 2e klasse (Lt.) Baron Carel Wessel Theodorus v.jpg
HNLMS K-XV (N 24, C/O luitenant ter zee 2e klasse (Lt.) Baron Carel Wessel Theodorus van Boetzelaer, RNLN) and

01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 26 HNLMS O-19 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 27 26 HNLMS O-19 luitenant ter zee 2e klasse (Lt.) Hendrik Florentijn Bach Kollin.jpg
HNLMS O-19
(N 54, C/O luitenant ter zee 2e klasse (Lt.) Hendrik Florentijn Bach Kolling, RNLN(R)
 

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Discussion Starter #254
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 171

still British Eastern Fleet

and

01.04. 1 3 0 a 30 Vice-Admiral Algernon U. Willis, RN 1.jpg
Force B as supporting force (C/O Vice-Admiral Algernon Usborne Willis, RN, Flag Officer 3rd Battle Squadron and Second in overall command) with

the 3rd Battle Squadron with the slow WW1 Revenge-Class battleships

01.04. 1 3 0 a 31 HMS Ramillies  1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 31 HMS Ramillies badge.jpg
HMS Ramillies (07, 1917, C/O Capt. Desmond Nevill Cooper Tufnell, RN),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 32 HMS Resolution 1 with HMS Formidable in April-May 1942.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 32 HMS Resolution 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 32 HMS Resolution badge.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 32 HMS Resolution Captain Arthur Robert Halfhide, RN.jpg
HMS Resolution (09, 1916, Flagship, C/O Capt. Arthur Robert Halfhide, RN),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 33 HMS Revenge at Trincomalee in 1942.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 33 HMS Revenge 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 33 HMS Revenge badge.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 33 HMS Revenge Captain Llewellyn Vaughan Morgan2.jpg
HMS Revenge
(06, 1916, C/O Capt. Llewellyn Vaughan Morgan, RN)

and
 

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Discussion Starter #255
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 172

01.04. 1 3 0 a 34 HMS Royal Sovereign 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 34 HMS Royal Sovereign badge.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 34 HMS Royal Sovereign Capt. Reginald Henry Portal, RN.jpg
HMS Royal Sovereign (05, 1916, C/O Capt. Reginald Henry Portal, RN),


01.04. 1 3 0 a 35 HMS Hermes 0.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 35 HMS Hermes 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 35 HMS Hermes 2.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 35 HMS Hermes 3 badge.jpg
the first purpose-built aircraft carrier HMS Hermes (D-95, 1923, C/O Capt. Richard Francis John Onslow, RN, with

01.04. 1 3 0 a 35 HMS Hermes 814 Sqdr 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 35 HMS Hermes 814 Sqdr Major William Hynd Norrie Martin 1.jpg
814 Squadron (C/O Major William Hynd Norrie Martin, 12x Fairey Swordfish I torpedo bombers),
 

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Discussion Starter #256
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 173

the 5th Cruiser Squadron with the old light cruisers

01.04. 1 3 0 a 36 HMS Caledon 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 36 HMS Caledon badge.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 36 HMS Caledon Capt. Henry John Haynes, RN.jpg
HMS Caledon (D-53, 1917, C/O A/Capt. Henry John Haynes, RN) and

01.04. 1 3 0 a 36 HMS Dragon 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 36 HMS Dragon badge.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 36 HMS Dragon Capt. Robert John Shaw, RN.jpg
HMS Dragon (D 46, 1918, C/O Capt. Robert John Shaw, RN) and

01.04. 1 3 0 a 40 HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 40 HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck Edzard Jacob van Holthe.jpg
the Dutch light AA-cruiser HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck (D 20, C/O kapitein-luitenant ter zee (Cdr.) Jonkheer Edzard Jacob van Holthe, RNN) and
 

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Discussion Starter #257 (Edited)
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 174

still British Eastern Fleet

eight destroyers of the 7th, 9th and 12th destroyer flotillas, five British,

01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 1 HMS Griffin 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 1 HMS Griffin badge 2.jpg
HMS Griffin
(H 31, C/OCapt. Hugh St. Lawrence Nicolson, RN),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 2 HMS Arrow 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 2 HMS Arrow badge 3.jpg
HMS Arrow
(H 42, C/O Cdr. Alec Murray McKillop, RN),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 3 HMS Decoy 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 3 HMS Decoy badge 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 3 HMS Decoy Lt. John Melvill Alliston, RN.jpg
HMS Decoy
(H 75, C/O Lt. John Melvill Alliston, RN),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 4 HMS Fortune 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 4 HMS Fortune badge 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 4 HMS Fortune Lt.Cdr. Richard Dickon Herbert Stephen Pankhurst, RN.jpg
HMS Fortune
(H 70, C/O Lt.Cdr. Richard Dickon Herbert Stephen Pankhurst, RN),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 5 HMS Scout 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 5 HMS Scout badge 2.jpg
HMS Scout
(H 51, C/O Lt.Cdr. (retired) Hedworth Lambton, RN),


 

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Discussion Starter #258 (Edited)
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 175

01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 6 HMAS Norman 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 6 HMAS Norman badge 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 6 HMAS Norman Admiral Henry Mackay Burrell, RAN.jpg
two Australian, HMAS Norman (G 49, C/O Cdr. Henry Mackay Burrell, RAN), ´

01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 7 HMAS Vampire 3.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 7 HMAS Vampire badge RAN.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 7 HMAS Vampire badge RN.jpg
HMAS Vampire (D 68, C/O Cdr. William Thomas Alldis Moran, RAN),

01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 8 HNLMS Isaac Sweers 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 41 7 HMAS Vampire Cdr. William Thomas Alldis Moran, RAN3.jpg
and one Dutch HNLMS Isaac Sweers (G 83, C/O kapitein-luitenant ter zee (Cdr.) Willem Harmsen, RNLN).

In addition Somerville had nine sloops (two British and seven of the Royal Indian Navy, HMS Falmouth (L 34, C/O Cdr. Ughtred Henry Ramsden James, RN), HMIS Hindustan (L 80, C/O A/Cdr. Ivan Bryan Warburton Heanly, RIN), HMIS Indus (L 67, C/O A/Cdr. Jesser Evelyn Napier Coope, RIN), HMIS Jumna (U 21, C/O Cdr. Walter Richard Shewring, RIN), HMS Shoreham (L 32, C/O Lt.Cdr. Eric Hewitt, RNR), HMIS Sutlej (U 95, C/O Captain Philip Armitage Mare, RIN), HMIS Clive (L 79, C/O Lt.Cdr. (emergency) Richard Robert Caws, RIN), HMIS Cornwallis (L 09, C/O T/Lt. William Thomas Cullon, RINR), HMIS Lawrence (L 83, C/O T/Lt. Charles Fyfe Smith, RINR)), five British corvettes (HMS Aster (K 188, C/O Lt. Walter Laurcence Smith, RNR), HMS Hollyhock (K 64, C/O Lt.Cdr. Thomas Edward Davies, RNR), HMS Marguerite (K 54, C/O Lt.Cdr. Arthur Norman Blundell, RNR), HMS Tulip (K 29, C/O Lt.Cdr. Archibald Wilkinson, RNR) and HMS Verbena (K 85, C/O Lt.Cdr. Denys Arthur Rayner, RNVR)) and several others, like minelayers, for instance the fast Dutch minelayer HNLMS Willem van der Zaan (M 08, luitenant ter zee 1e klasse (Lt.Cdr.) Gijsbertus Petrus Küller, RNN), and an old monitor under his command.

The C in C signalled to the Fleet once it had assembled, 'there is many a good tune played on an old fiddle'. In addition to the age of the ships, there was no Fleet support, such as tankers or stores.

Before and barely after Somerville assessed his new command, several intelligence reports came in.
The Allies’ signals intelligence (SIGINT) units had managed to break back into Japanese code JN-25B and on 3 March, the Far East Combined Bureau (FECB), the SIGINT centre at Colombo, was able read its first JN-25B message since 4 December. This message revealed that five Japanese submarines were to be based at Penang, on the northwest coast of Malaya, which clearly indicated that submarines would be operating in the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean and was taken as a possible indication of pending surface operations in the same area. By mid-March, SIGINT was aware that Carrier Divisions 1 (IJN Akagi and IJN Kaga) and 2 (IJN Soryu and IJN Hiryu)

01.04. 1 3 0 a 42 HIJMS Kaga at Staring Bay, Feb, 1942.jpg
were at Staring Bay, its forward base in Celebes, and that Carrier Division 5 (IJN Shokaku and IJN Zuikaku) was on its way to join them. During the second half of March, firmer indications of what the Imperial Japanese Navy’s carrier task force’s (Kido Butai, KdB) next operation might be were seen. FECB later recorded that “about 20 March 1942 certain JN.25 messages concerned an operation by a Japanese carrier force, accompanied by another force (thought to be heavy cruisers), in the D area, including an air raid on DG on 2 April.” The identity of “DG” was not known at that point but was deduced on 28 March from additional decrypts. FECB “estimated that D was the Ceylon area and DG a town in Ceylon—probably Colombo.”

Admiral Somerville first summoned the head of FECB’s cryptanalysis branch to discuss the reliability of this intelligence and was persuaded that it was correct: Japan was sending a strike force into the Indian Ocean, a Japanese force of two or more carriers, battleships of the Kongo class, several eight-inch cruisers, two six-inch cruisers and accompanying destroyers was believed to be at sea already. Somerville immediately called a conference of his captains. If correct, this was a powerful, but opposable force. The expected time of arrival was 31 March. As a full moon was forecast for 1 April, Somerville and his advisers were convinced the attack would be launched before dawn that day.
 

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Discussion Starter #259
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 176

Sunday, 29 March 1942 the Eastern Fleet was disposed as follows:

At Colombo/Ceylon were HMS Formidable, HMS Dorsetshire (refitting), HMS Cornwall, HMS Enterprise, HMS Dragon and 5 destroyers,

at Trincomalee/Ceylon HMS Warspite, HMS Emerald, HMS Hermes, HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck and one destroyer and

01.04. 1 3 0 a 45 Addu Atoll 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 45 Addu Atoll Gan Air field.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 45 Addu Atoll RAF Flying boat base on south and of Hithadhoo 1942.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 45 Addu Atoll Royal marines hants battery and headquarter 1942.jpg
at Addu Atoll (a hastily assembled secret Admiralty base on the southernmost tip of the Maldive Islands, 600 miles south-west of Ceylon) HMS Resolution, HMS Ramillies, HMS Royal Sovereign, HMS Indomitable and eight destroyers.

With the Japanese approaching Somerville´s plan was to concentrate the battlefleet, carriers and all available cruisers and destroyers and to rendezvous on the evening of 31 March in a position from which the fast division (Force A) could intercept the enemy during the night of 31 March/1 April and deliver a night air attack,

01.04. 1 3 0 a 46 0 ASV Mk XI scanner fitted to Fairey Swordfish fuselage1.jpg
because the only known advantage of the British was the radar equipment of ships and several planes. The remainder (Force B) had to manoeuvre so as to be approximately 20 miles to the westward of Force A. If Force A intercepted a superior force, Somerville intended to withdraw towards Force B.

Tuesday, 31 March by 16:00 all the forces had rendezvoused in the prearranged position 80 miles S.S.E. from Dondra Head, the southern point of Ceylon, and the fleet shaped a course to the northward, but nothing happened, no contact at all to the Japanese and the same the following days. But information would have been possible, as in the morning of the same day Nagumo's occupation force (see below), comprising three light cruisers,

01.04. 1 3 0 a 46 1 christmas islands 1.jpg
four destroyers and two transports, made a landing at Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island. It was unopposed because of a mutiny by Indian soldiers against their British officers and the Island was surrendered. A Japanes naval brigade, phosphate engineers and 700 marines came ashore and rounded up the workforce, most of whom had fled to the jungle. 12 of Nagumo´s planes also bombed the radio facilities there.

01.04. 1 3 0 a 46 2 USS Seawolf 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 46 3 USS Seawolf LtCdr Frederick B. Warder 1.jpg
An allied submarine, USS Seawolf (SS-197, C/O Lt.Cdr Frederick Burdett Warder), had even sighted the ships laying at anchor during the invasion, fired at the Japanese flagship and finally hit it, but none of this was relayed to the Eastern Fleet.

Nagumo, in the meantime, was maintaining a fuel-efficient pace. He had decided to delay his attack further, from 4 April to Easter Sunday 5 April. He thought that - just as the Americans at Pearl Harbor - the British would be less alerted and attending church.

3 April Somerville felt convinced that something must have occurred to delay the Japanese attack or alternatively that their objective had been inaccurately appreciated. He therefore detached HMS Dorsetshire and HMS Cornwall at 09:40 to Colombo, the former to resume her interrupted refit and the latter to act as escort to the Australian troop convoy SU 4

01.04. 1 3 0 a 47 1 USAT Willard A. Holbrook 1.jpg
(the American transport USAT Willard A. Holbrook

01.04. 1 3 0 a 47 2 MV Duntroon 1.jpg
and the Australian MV Duntroon). Somerville also detached HMS Hermes with her attendant destroyer HMAS Vampire to Trincomalee to prepare for Operation Ironclad, the pre-emptive invasion of Madagascar. At 18:20, Force A proceeded ahead at 19 knots for Addu Atoll, Force B following astern at 14 knots.
 

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Discussion Starter #260
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 177

01.04.03.02. Ceylon Japanese Fleets

01.04. 1 3 0 a 50 Admiral Nagumos fleet, left to right Akagi, Soryu, Hiryu, Hiei, Kirishima, Har.jpg
31 March 1942 the Japanese had started the “Indian Ocean Raid” (known in Japan as “Operation C”), the naval sortie by the fast carrier strike force of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) against Allied shipping and bases in the Indian Ocean.

01.04. 1 3 0 a 49 Vice-Admiral Nobutake Kondō 1.jpg
Overall commander for the raid was Vice-Admiral Nobutake Kondō (近藤信竹).

01.04. 1 3 0 a 50 Admiral Chūichi Nagumo 1.jpg
5 April 1942 the “Easter Sunday Raid” was launched by the overall naval commander Vice-Admiral Chūichi Nagumo (南雲忠一).

The IJN attacked the Royal Navy with the

a) Second Southern Expeditionary Fleet of the IJN, directly commanded by Admiral Nagumo, with
the 1st Carrier Division with

01.04. 1 3 0 a 52 IJN Akagi 2.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 52 IJN Akagi 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 51 IJN Akagi 1942 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 51 IJN Akagi 1941 1.jpg 01.04. 1 3 0 a 53 IJN Akagi Captain Kiichi Hasegawa 1.jpg
IJN Akagi (赤城 Red Castle, Nagumo´s Flagship, C/O Captain Kiichi Hasegawa 長谷川喜一, with 27x A6M2, 18x D3A1, 27x B5N2),
 
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